God sent Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh to ask for the release of His people so that they could worship Him freely. Initially Pharaoh refused and Moses demonstrated God’s powerby turning Aaron’s staff into a serpent.
The  10 plagues are punishments on Pharaoh and Egypt for not allowing God’s people, Israel, to go free from slavery. Pharaoh was demonstrating his power over the Israelites and questioning, “Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go.”

Blood – turn all water into blood; plague lasted a week.  Egyptians had to dig wells for fresh water

Frogs – they overran the country.  Frogs were found in the beds, kitchens and bedrooms

Lice – consumed all the Egyptians

Flies – affected the land

Cattle – all the cattle of the Egyptians died

Boils – skin disease

Hail – mixture of hail and fire.  It destroyed many crops, killed people and animals

Locust – they ate all the rest of the crops and trees not destroyed by the hail

Darkness – darkness lasted three days, however the Israelites had light in their homes

Death of the Firstborn - The tenth and final plague was the death of the firstborn of all the people and animals

haggadah Section: -- Ten Plagues
Source: modification of List of The Ten Plagues in Egypt From The Bible