Preview is being generated. Please wait .....
Introduction
Source : JewishBoston.com

1. What do you consider your “promised land,” or heaven on earth?

2. In Hebrew, the word for Egypt is “Mitzraim,” which literally means “narrow place.” What is one way that you wish for our society to be more open?

3. Moses is considered one of the greatest leaders in our history — he is described as being smart, courageous, selfless and kind. Which of today’s leaders inspires you in a similar way?

4. Miriam was a prophetess and the sister of Moses who, after crossing the Red Sea, led the women in song and dance with tambourines. She is described as being courageous, confident, insightful and nurturing. Which musician or artist today inspires you in a similar way?

5. More recent and ongoing struggles for freedom include civil rights, GLBTQ equality, and women’s rights. Who is someone involved in this work that you admire?

6. Is there someone — or multiple people — in your family’s history who made their own journey to freedom?

7. Freedom is a central theme of Passover. When in your life have you felt most free?

8. If you could write an 11th commandment, what would it be?

9. What’s the longest journey you have ever taken?

10. How many non-food uses for matzah can you think of? Discuss!

11. Let’s say you are an Israelite packing for 40 years in the desert. What three modern items would you want to bring?

12. The Haggadah says that in every generation of Jewish history enemies have tried to eliminate us. What are the biggest threats you see to Judaism today?

13. The Passover seder format encourages us to ask as many questions as we can. What questions has Judaism encouraged you to ask?

14. Israel is central to the Passover seder. Do you think modern Israel is central to Jewish life? Why or why not?

15. The manna in the desert had a taste that matched the desire of each individual who ate it. For you, what would that taste be? Why?

16. Let’s say you had to swim across the Red Sea, and it could be made of anything except water. What would you want it to be?

17. If the prophet Elijah walked through the door and sat down at your table, what’s the first thing you would ask him?

18. Afikoman means “dessert” in Greek. If you could only eat one dessert for the rest of your life, what would it be?

19. What is something you wish to cleanse yourself of this year? A bad habit? An obsession or addiction?

20. The word “seder” means “order.” How do you maintain order in your life?

---

Download the PDF here: https://www.jewishboston.com/20-table-topics-for-your-passover-seder/

Introduction
Our Passover meal is called a seder, which means “order” in Hebrew, because we go through specific steps as we retell the story of our ancestors’ liberation from slavery. Some people like to begin their seder by reciting or singing the names of the 14 steps—this will help you keep track of how far away the meal is!
Kadesh
by Jenny
Source : Original

When we drink our four cups of wine, we recline to the left like we are royalty!

Kadesh
by Jenny
Source : Michal Sagal

Our first cup of wine (or grape juice) is for the physical spring that we see, hear, smell, touch. It is one of the many miracles we see every year. Green forces its way through the cracks of the hard earth. Birds begin to venture out and sing. The scent of flowers perfumes the air. Warmth begins to creep into our skin and make us feel alive again.

We raise our cups and recite:

Kadesh
Source : (Traditional)

   On Shabbat begin here, and include the portions in parentheses

וַיְהִי עֶרֶב וַיְהִי בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל צְבָאַָם. וַיְכַל אֱלֹקִים בַּיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אוֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר בֶָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת.)

סַבְרִי מָרָנָן וְרַבָּנָן וְרַבּוֹתַי

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָפֶן.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בָּנוּ מִכָּל עָם וְרוֹמְמָנוּ מִכָּל לָשׁוֹן וְקִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו. וַתִּתֶּן לָנוּ יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּאַהֲבָה (שַׁבָּתוֹת לִמְנוּחָה וּ) מוֹעֲדִים לְשִׂמְחָה, חַגִּים וּזְמַנִּים לְשָׂשׂוֹן, אֶת יוֹם (הַשַׁבָּת הַזֶה וְאֶת יוֹם) חַג הַמַצוֹת הַזֶה, זְמַן חֵרוּתֵנוּ (בְּאַהֲבָה), מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ, זֵכֶר לִיצִיאַת מִצְרָיִם. כִּי בָנוּ בָחַרְתָּ וְאוֹתָנוּ קִדַּשְׁתָּ מִכָּל הָעַמִּים, (וְשַׁבָּת) וּמוֹעֲדֵי קָדְשֶךָ (בְּאַהֲבָה וּבְרָצוֹן,) בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְשָׂשׂוֹן הִנְחַלְתָּנוּ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי, מְקַדֵּשׁ (הַשַׁבָּת וְ) יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַזְּמַנִּים.

On Saturday night include

[בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא מְאוֹרֵי הָאֵשׁ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם הַמַבְדִיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְחֹל, ין אוֹר לְחשֶׁךְ, בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לָעַמִּים, בֵּין יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לְשֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה. בֵּין קְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת לִקְדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב הִבְדַּלְתָּ, וְאֶת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה קִדַּשְׁתָּ. הִבְדַּלְתָּ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֶת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּקְדֻשָּׁתֶךָ. ,בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי הַמַּבְדִיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְקֹדֶשׁ.]

Urchatz
by Jenny
Source : Original

Urchatz is the first time in the seder where we wash our hands.  We do this by pouring water from a cup over our hands three times on both right and left.  Usually, when we wash our hands we say a blessing.  This time we do not.  Why?

Urchatz
by VBS
Source : Valley Beth Shalom Haggadah

In the Torah, only the priests of the Temple are commanded to wash, and only before they partake of the sacrificial meal. Today, we have no Temple in Jerusalem, no altar, no priests and no sacrifices. Instead, every home can be a Temple, every table an altar, every meal a sanctified experience, and every Jew a priest. And eating, a mechanical biological function, can be transformed into a ritual filled with meaning. 

Karpas
by Jenny
Source : Adapted from JewishBoston

Dipping a green vegetable in salt water |karpas | כַּרְפַּס

Passover, like many of our holidays, combines the celebration of an event from our Jewish memory with a recognition of the cycles of nature. As we remember our liberation as slaves from Egypt, we also recognize the blooming and sprouting of spring happening in the world around us. The symbols on our table bring together elements of both kinds of celebration.

We now take a vegetable, representing our joy at the dawning of spring after our long, cold winter. Most families use a green vegetable such as parsley or celery, but some families from Eastern Europe have a tradition of using a boiled potato since greens were hard to come by at Passover time. Whatever symbol of spring and sustenance we’re using, we now dip it into salt water, a symbol of the tears our ancestors shed as slaves. Before we eat it, we recite a short blessing:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה:

Baruch Atah Adonai, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam, borei p’ree ha-adama.

We praise God, Ruler of Everything, who creates the fruits of the earth.

We look forward to spring and the reawakening of flowers and greenery. They haven’t been lost, just buried beneath the snow, getting ready for reappearance just when we most needed them.

We all have aspects of ourselves that sometimes get buried under the stresses of our busy lives. What has this winter taught us? What elements of our own lives do we hope to revivie this spring?

Yachatz
Source : The Wandering is Over Haggadah, JewishBoston.com

There are three pieces of matzah stacked on the table. We now break the middle matzah into two pieces. The host should wrap up the larger of the pieces and, at some point between now and the end of dinner, hide it. This piece is called the afikomen, literally “dessert” in Greek. After dinner, the guests will have to hunt for the afikomen in order to wrap up the meal… and win a prize.

We eat matzah in memory of the quick flight of our ancestors from Egypt. As slaves, they had faced many false starts before finally being let go. So when the word of their freedom came, they took whatever dough they had and ran with it before it had the chance to rise, leaving it looking something like matzah.

Uncover and hold up the three pieces of matzah and say:

This is the bread of poverty which our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt. All who are hungry, come and eat; all who are needy, come and celebrate Passover with us. This year we are here; next year we will be in Israel. This year we are slaves; next year we will be free.

These days, matzah is a special food and we look forward to eating it on Passover. Imagine eating only matzah, or being one of the countless people around the world who don’t have enough to eat.

What does the symbol of matzah say to us about oppression in the world, both people literally enslaved and the many ways in which each of us is held down by forces beyond our control? How does this resonate with events happening now?

Maggid - Beginning
by Jenny

The broken matzah is lifted up for all to see while we read the next section:

Maggid - Beginning

The central imperative of the Seder is to tell the story. The Bible instructs: “ You shall tell your child on that day, saying: ‘This is because of what Adonai did for me when I came out of Egypt.' ” (Exodus 13:8) We relate the story of our ancestors to regain the memories as our own. Elie Weisel writes: God created man because He loves stories. We each have a story to tell — a story of enslavement, struggle, liberation. Be sure to tell your story at the Seder table, for the Passover is offered not as a one-time event, but as a model for human experience in all generations.

Ha lachma anya d’achaloo avhatana b’ara d’meetzrayeem. Kol dichfeen yay-tay vi’yachool, kol deetzreech yay-tay viyeesfsach. Hashata hach. Li’shana ha-ba-aa bi’arah di’yeesrael. Hashata av’day, li’shana ha-ba a bi’nay choreen.

This is the bread of affliction, which our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt. Let all who are hungry come and eat. Let all who are in need, come and celebrate Passover. Today, we are here. Next year, in the land of Israel. Today, we are slaves. Next year, we will be free.

Written in Aramaic, this statement begins the narration of the Seder by inviting the hungry to our table. Aramaic, Jewish legend has it, is the one language which the angels do not understand. Why then is Ha Lachma spoken in Aramaic? To teach us that where there is hunger, no one should rely upon the angels, no one should pray to the heavens for help. We know the language of the poor, for we were poor in the land of Egypt. We know that we are called to feed the poor and to call them to join our celebration of freedom.

Maggid - Beginning
by Jenny
Source : Original

Pour the second glass of wine (don't drink yet).

Maggid - Beginning
Source : Unknown
  • In every generation, we must see ourselves as if we personally were liberated from Egypt. We gather tonight to tell the ancient story of a people's liberation from Egyptian slavery. This is the story of our origins as a people. It is from these events that we gain our ethics, our vision of history, our dreams for the future. We gather tonight, as two hundred generations of Jewish families have before us, to retell the timeless tale.
  • Yet our tradition requires that on Seder night, we do more than just tell the story. We must live the story. Tonight, we will re-experience the liberation from Egypt. We will remember how our family suffered as slaves; we will feel the exhilaration of redemption. We must re-taste the bitterness of slavery and must rejoice over our newfound freedom. We annually return to Egypt in order to be freed. We remember slavery in order to deepen our commitment to end all suffering; we recreate our liberation in order to reinforce our commitment to universal freedom.
Maggid - Beginning
Source : Rabbi Micah Streiffer and Ava Pomerantz

The Maggid, or storytelling in Hebrew, is the bulk of the Seder. It’s complex in that it’s one story, but this one story is depicted in 6 different ways because the sages couldn’t decide on how to treat this story with the most respect. Others believe that it was told in different ways to keep people active and speaking so they could stay up through the entire seder: first we have the four questions, second the four children, third an actually telling, fourth some singing, fifth the ten plagues, and sixth an explanation of symbols.

-- Four Questions
Source : Traditional

                 Maggid – Four Questions

מַהנִּשְּׁתַּנָה

מַה נִּשְּׁתַּנָה הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת?

Mah nish-ta-na ha-lai-lah ha-zeh mikol ha-lei-lot?

Why is this night of Passover different from all other nights of the year?

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין חָמֵץ וּמַצָּה, הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה - כּוּלוֹ מַצָּה.

She-b'chol ha-lei-lot anu och'lin cha-meitz u-matzah. Ha-laylah hazeh kulo matzah.

On all other nights, we eat either leavened or unleavened bread, why on this night do we eat only matzah?

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין שְׁאָר יְרָקוֹת, - הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה מָרוֹר.

Sheb'chol ha-lei-lot anu och'lin sh'ar y'rakot. Ha-lai-lah h-azeh maror.

On all other nights, we eat vegetables of all kinds, why on this night must we eat bitter herbs?

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אֵין אֶנוּ מַטְבִּילִין אֲפִילוּ פַּעַם אֶחָת, - הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה שְׁתֵּי פְעָמִים.

Sheb'chol ha-lei-lot ein anu mat-beelin afee-lu pa-am echat.Ha-lai-lah hazeh sh'tei p'ameem.

On all other nights, we do not dip vegetables even once, why on this night do we dip greens into salt water and bitter herbs into sweet haroset?

שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין בֵּין יוֹשְׁבִין וּבֵין מְסֻבִּין, - הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה כֻּלָנו מְסֻ

Sheb’khol ha-lei-lot anu och-leem bein yo-shveen u-vein m’su-been, ha-lailah hazeh kulanu m’subeen.

On all other nights, everyone sits up straight at the table, why on this night do we recline and eat at leisure?

-- Four Questions
Source : Telling the Story: A Passover Haggadah Explained

Later, we will read and explore the whole story of the Exodus from Egypt, but first we give a simple answer to each of these four questions.


We eat matzoh because when our ancestors were told by Pharaoh that they could leave Egypt, they had no time to allow their bread to rise, so they baked hurriedly, without leavening.


At the Seder, we eat bitter herbs to remind us of the bitterness our ances- tors experienced when they were oppressed as slaves.


At the Seder table, we dip food twice; once in salt water to remind us of the tears shed in slavery and again in haroset, to remind us that there is sweetness even in bitter times.


In ancient times, slaves ate hurriedly, standing or squatting on the ground. Symbolically, as a sign of freedom, we lean and relax as we partake of wine and symbolic food. The Haggadah tells the story of Rabbi Akiba and other Talmudic scholars sitting at the Seder table in B’nai B’rak all night long discussing the events of the liberation from Egypt. They talked all night until their students came in to announce it was time for the morning prayers. If great scholars can find the theme of freedom so fascinating that it keeps them up all night, our Seder too, will be made more interesting with questions, comments and discussion on this theme.

-- Four Questions

ּעֲבָדִים הָיִינוּ הָיִינו. עַתָּה בְּנֵי חוֹרִין 

Avadim hayinu hayinu. Ata b’nei chorin.

We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt. Now we are free.

We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, and God took us from there with a strong hand and outstretched arm. Had God not brought our ancestors out of Egypt, then even today we and our children and our grandchildren would still be slaves. Even if we were all wise, knowledgeable scholars and Torah experts, we would still be obligated to tell the story of the exodus from Egypt.

Exodus 6:5-7New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)

5 I have also heard the groaning of the Israelites whom the Egyptians are holding as slaves, and I have remembered my covenant. 6 Say therefore to the Israelites, ‘I am the Lord, and I will free you from the burdens of the Egyptians and deliver you from slavery to them. I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment. 7 I will take you as my people, and I will be your God. You shall know that I am the Lord your God, who has freed you from the burdens of the Egyptians.

-- Four Children
Source : Original
Traditionally, The Four Sons (or Children) include a wise son, a wicked (or rebellious) son, a simple son and one who does not even know enough to ask.  Each of the first three ask questions about the Seder, essentially "Explain all this to me - what are my responsibilities?" "What has all this nonsense you are babbling about got to do with me?" and "What IS all this anyway?" while the fourth is silent - requiring the adults to be proactive in providing an explanation of the Seder proceedings.

Some say that The Four Children is a metaphor for four different attitudes toward tradition, toward belonging and toward being active or passive in the face of injustice.  Some say it is about stages of life, from childhood, through adolescence and into adulthood (and, potentially, back again toward old age).

In the spirit of telling the story of Exodus and different attitudes that one might take to one's communal and global responsibilities, think about your relationship to your tradition, the people from whom or the place from which you come and the events taking place there.

- Do you understand what is going on?

- Do you feel any obligation to do anything about it?

- What would you do if you could?

- What should you tell your children about it?

-- Four Children

Blessed be the Infinite One, Who keeps the promise to Yisrael. For The Infinite foretold the end of bondate to Avraham at the Covenant of Sacrifices, And the Infinite said to Avraham, "Know that your children will be strangers in a strange land. They will be enslaved there and will be oppressed four hundred years. The nation who will oppress them, will. however, be judged. And your people will be freed."

וְהִיא שֶׁעָמְדָה לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ וְלָנוּ, שֶׁלֹּא אֶחָד בִּלְבָד עָמַד

עָלֵינוּ לְכַלּוֹתֵנוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר עוֹמְדִים עָלֵינוּ

לְכַלוֹתֵנוּ, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַצִּילֵנוּ מִיָּדָם.

V'hee she ama dah, lahvo tay nu, v'lanoo. Sheh loh ehchad beel vahd amad.

Ah-lay-noo l'chaloh taynu, el ah, shebachol dohr vahdohr ohm deem ah-lay-noo.

L'chal otahnoo, v'chak adosh baruch hoo mitz laynoo, mee yah dahm.

This covenant that remained constant for our ancestors and for us has saved us against any who arose to destroy us in every generation, and throughout history when any stood against us to annihilate us, the Kadosh Barukh Hu kept saving us from them.

-- Exodus Story
Source : The Velveteen Rabbi
Once upon a time, during a famine our ancestor Jacob and his family fled to Egypt where food was plentiful. His son Joseph had risen to high position in Pharaoh’s court, and our people were well-respected and well-regarded, secure in the power structure of the time.

Generations passed and our people remained in Egypt. In time, a new Pharaoh ascended to the throne. He found our difference threatening, and ordered our people enslaved. In fear of rebellion, Pharaoh decreed that all Hebrew baby boys be killed. Two midwives named Shifrah and Puah defied his orders.  Through their courage, a boy survived; midrash tells us he was radiant with light. Fearing for his safety, his family placed him in a basket and he floated down the Nile. He was found, and adopted, by Pharaoh’s daughter, who named him Moses because she drew him forth from the water.  Thanks to Moses' sister Miriam, Pharaoh's daughter hired their mother, Yocheved, as his wet-nurse. Thus he survived to adulthood, and was raised as Prince of Egypt.

Although a child of privilege, as he grew he became aware of the slaves who worked in the brickyards of his father. When he saw an overseer mistreat a slave, Moses struck the overseer and killed him. Fearing retribution, he set out across the Sinai alone. God spoke to him from a burning bush, which though it flamed was not consumed. The Voice called him to lead the Hebrew people to freedom. Moses argued with God, pleading inadequacy, but God disagreed. Sometimes our responsibilities choose us.

Moses returned to Egypt and went to Pharaoh to argue the injustice of slavery. He gave Pharaoh a mandate which resounds through history: Let my people go. Pharaoh refused, and Moses warned him that Mighty God would strike the Egyptian people. These threats were not idle; ten terrible plagues were unleashed upon the Egyptians. Only when his nation lay in ruins did Pharaoh agree to our liberation.

Fearful that Pharaoh would change his mind, our people fled, not waiting for their bread dough to rise.  Our people did not leave Egypt alone; a “mixed multitude” went with them. From this we learn that liberation is not for us alone, but for all the nations of the earth. Even Pharaoh’s daughter came with us.

Pharaoh’s army followed us to the Sea of Reeds. We plunged into the waters. Only when we had gone as far as we could did the waters part for us. We mourn, even now, that Pharaoh’s army drowned: our liberation is bittersweet because people died in our pursuit. To this day we relive our liberation, that we may not become complacent, that we may always rejoice in our freedom.

-- Exodus Story
Source : http://werepair.org/
Source 1: Babylonian Talmud

Context: The Babylonian Talmud is a collection of Jewish stories, laws and debates grounded in the Bible and other Jewish texts. It was compiled in the fifth century in modern-day Iraq, but many portions of it are much older. Here, the Talmud quotes and comments on a passage from a second-century text called the Mishnah. The Mishnah asks, “How long must a person live in a city to be counted among the people of that city?”, and presents the response, “Twelve months. If a person bought a house, he is immediately considered a to be a person of that city.” This prompts the Talmud to dive deeper and to consider what specific communal obligations a person takes on, depending on how long they have lived in the city.

Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bava Batra 8a

When a person comes to live in a city, in thirty days, that person becomes obligated to contribute to the soup kitchen; in three months, to the communal charity fund; in six months, to the clothing fund; in nine months, to the burial fund; and in twelve months, for contributing to the upkeep of the city walls.

Guiding Questions:

● This text envisions newcomers slowly easing their way into communal obligations. Why might this be so?

● Do you agree with the list of obligations outlined here? What would you add or subtract from this list?

● What do you understand to be the rationale behind the prioritization of needs outlined in this text? Why do you think that new residents might take on these responsibilities in this order?

● Given these obligations, at what point in time does a newcomer move from being a newcomer to a “resident”? Do you agree with this timeline?

● What else does it take to become a member of the community besides contributing in the ways outlined in this text? Is contributing to these funds sufficient?

Source 2: Jewish Encyclopedia

Jewish Encyclopedia, “Hospitality: Duty of Guest” (citations omitted and formatting adjusted)

The guest [in Jewish tradition] was [instructed] to show his gratitude to the host in various ways. . . .:

● While the host was to break bread first, the guest was expected to pronounce grace after the meal, in which he included a special blessing for the host...

● The guest was expected to leave some of the food on his dish, to show that he had more than enough.

If, however, the host asked him to finish his portion, it was not necessary for him to leave any.

● It was the duty of the guest to comply with all the requests of the host.

● He might not give of his meal to the son or to the daughter or to the servant of the host without the host's permission.

Guiding Questions:

● What responsibilities does this text put on guests? What other responsibilities do you think guests have in general?

● The phrase “being hospitable” most often refers to a host’s responsibilities. How does it feel to put parallel responsibilities on the guest?

● When you’re serving as a host, what makes for an ideal guest? What makes someone a bad guest?

● To what extent are people moving into a new neighborhood “guests”?

● How might the traditional Jewish responsibilities of guests be similar to or different from the responsibilities of someone moving into a new community?

● Does it matter how long a newcomer intends to live in the neighborhood? Does it matter if they’re renting or if they’ve bought a place to live?

Closing Questions (for the full group):

● What came up for you and your partner while reading these sources?

● When a person moves to a new neighborhood, for how long are they a “guest”? Can they ever fully become a “host”?

● What types of communal obligations does a guest/newcomer have? What types of communal obligations does a host/resident have?

● What are the steps of stages of transitions from guest to host, newcomer to resident, if the shift is even possible?

-- Exodus Story
Source : From the eighth chapter of Eight Chapters (introduction to commentary on Pirkei Avot in the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah)

One element of the story of the exodus that the Roberts' version elides is God's hardening of Pharaoh's heart. Moses Maimonides (ca 1135 - 1204 CE) recognized this element of the story as a significant paradox since it seemed to suggest that God forced Pharaoh to make the wicked decisions that brought about the punishment of the plagues. As Maimonides recognizes, if this were so, then the notion that the plagues were a punishment as well as a means of the liberation of the Jews would both destroy the notion that moral responsibility depends upon the assumption that human beings are moral agents and any corresponding notion of divine justice (though it should be noted that Maimonides' conception of "divine justice" is, in turn, not altogether obvious). Below is a passage from chapter eight of Maimonides' "Eight Chapters" (his introduction to his commentary on Pirkei Avot in his Commentary on the Mishnah ). What do you make of the Rambam's attempt to reconcile this element of the story with a reasonable conception of human agency and divine justice?

*****

Pharaoh and his followers disobeyed by choice, without force or compulsion. They oppressed the foreigners who were in their midst and treated them with sheer injustice. As it is clearly said: And he said to his people: Behold, the people of Israel… Come, let us deal shrewdly with them. This action was due to their choice and to the evil character of their thought; there was nothing compelling them to do it. God punished them for it by preventing them from repenting so that the punishment which His justice required would befall them. What prevented them from repentance was that they would not set [Israel] free.

God explained this to [Pharaoh] and informed him that if He had only wanted to take [Israel] out [of Egypt], He would have exterminated [Pharaoh] and his followers, and they would have gone out. But in addition to taking them out, He wanted to punish [Pharaoh] for oppressing them previously. As He had said at the very outset: And also that nation, whom they shall serve, I will I judge. It was not possible to punish them if they repented, so they were prevented from repenting and they continued holding [Israel]. This is what He says: Surely now I have put forth my hand. . . but because of this I have left you standing, etc.

No disgrace need be attached to us because of our saying that God may punish an individual for not repenting, even though He leaves them no choice about repentance, For He, may be exalted, knows the sins, and His wisdom and justice impose the extent of the punishment. He may punish in this world alone, He may punish in the other [world] alone, or He may punish in both realms. His punishment in this world varies: He may punish with regard to the body, money, or both. He may impede some of man’s voluntary movements as a means of punishment, like preventing his hand from grasping, as He did with Jeroboam, or the eye from seeing, as He did with the men of Sodom who had united against Lot.

Similarly, He may prevent the choice of repentance so that a man does not at all incline toward it and is destroyed for his sin. It is not for us to know His wisdom to the extent of knowing why He punished this individual with this kind of punishment and did not punish him with another kind, just as we do not know the reason he determined this species to this form and not another form. But the general rule is that all of His ways are just. He punishes the sinner to the extent of his sin and He rewards the beneficent man to the extent of his beneficence.

-- Exodus Story

In this section of the Haggadah, the Rabbis have taken the verses Deuteronomy 26:5-11 and through interpolation have delved further into the meaning of the text itself.  Most of the proof-texts that the Rabbis used to better understand these verses in Deuteronomy and expound upon the Exodus story come from the Book of Exodus itself.  However, at the end of the last verse, when it comes to the word “ u’vimoftim ” (and with wonders) the Book of Joel is used as its proof text.  Let’s quickly look at the last verse from Deuteronomy in its entirety.  The verse says “The Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand and outstretched arm, with great awe, miraculous signs and with wonders ( u’vimoftim). ”  The verse in Deuteronomy 26:8 is clearly referring to the miraculous way that God took the Jewish people out of Israel.  If you look at the proof-texts that the Rabbis used to further explain what is meant by God taking the Jewish people out with a mighty hand, etc. they draw from the Book of Exodus.  And yet, for the last word “ u’vimoftim ” (and with wonders) they turn to the Book of Joel.  In the quoted text, Joel is describing the end of the days just before the Messiah will arrive.  “Before the great and terrible day of the Lords comes, I will set wonders in the sky and on the earth…blood, fire and pillars of smoke.” (Joel 3:3). 

At my father’s seder table he always speaks about how the Haggadah and the seder night is a blueprint for what we need to do to bring the next redemption, the next Exodus from Egypt.  He always tells the children that for generations we have been reading the Haggadah and trying to understand its every word so that we can try and figure out what we need to do to experience the same redemption that the Jews of Egypt did.  The Rabbis quoting from Joel as he speaks about a future redemption seems to be yet another place in the Haggadah where the Rabbis are saying to us – “Pay attention!”  This is not just about the story in Egypt.  We aren’t just quoting from the Book of Exodus about the specific exodus story that happened then.  We are looking toward the future as well.  The Haggadah that we use today was compiled after the Second Temple was destroyed and the focus of Pesach was not around the Pascal offering in the Temple, but rather, it was to be used in personal homes as a guide for the night.  The Rabbis were making a distinctly important statement in the texts they chose to include.  Yes, we may not have the Temple right now, and it may be easy to become despondent thinking that the Exodus happened a long time ago.  But do not lose faith.  This is as much our own personal story.  If we can figure out the “secret sauce” then we too will be able to experience the wonders of God and see redemption in our lifetime.  One need to just think about the Redemption with a capital R that Joel is speaking about.  Each of us in our lifetime may have our own Egypt moments, our own moments when we seem trapped in our own suffering.  It is in those moments when we each have to make a choice: will we lose hope or will we continue to plow forward and do everything in our control to get to the point of redemption.  The path may not be easy, it may not be linear, and it may take tremendous time, but we can focus on the verse “The Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand and outstretched arm, with great awe, miraculous signs and with wonders.”  As the Rabbis hinted in their choice of words from Joel, we too will be able to come out of our own Egypt moments.

-- Ten Plagues
by -- --

Midrash teaches that, while watching the Egyptians succumb to the ten plagues, the angels broke into songs of jubilation. God rebuked them, saying “My creatures are perishing, and you sing praises?”

As we recite each plague, we spill a drop of wine—symbol of joy—from our cups. Our joy in our liberation will always be tarnished by the pain visited upon the Egyptians.

We are about to recite the ten plagues. As we call out the words, we remove ten drops from our overflowing cups, not by tilting the cup and spilling some out, but with our fingers. This dipping is not food into food. It is personal and intimate, a momentary submersion like the first step into the Red Sea.

dam – blood

tzfardeyah – frogs

kinim – lice

arov – wild beasts

dever – cattle disease

sh’chin – boils

barad – hail

arbeh – locusts

choshech – darkness

makat b’chorot – slaying of the first-born

The Pharaoh of the Passover story is not just a cruel king who happened to live in a certain country. The Pharaoh that our ancestors pictured, each and every year, for century after century was for them every tyrant, every cruel and heartless ruler who ever enslaved the people of his or another country. And this is why Passover means the emancipation of all people in the world from the tyranny of kings, oppressors and tyrants. The first emancipation was only a foreshadowing of all the emancipations to follow, and a reminder that the time will come when right will conquer might, and all people will live in trust and peace.

-- Ten Plagues
by Jenny
Source : http://www.adatshalom.net/holidays/pesachsongs.html
The Frog Song (Shirley Cohen)

One morning when Pharoah awoke in his bed 
There were frogs in his bed, and frogs on his head 
Frogs on his nose and frogs on his toes 
Frogs here, frogs there 
Frogs were jumping everywhere.

-- Ten Plagues
by Jenny
Source : http://www.adatshalom.net/holidays/pesachsongs.html

The Building Song (Shirley Cohen)

Bang, bang, bang Hold your hammer low

Bang, bang, bang Give a heavy blow

 For it's work, work, work Every day and every night, 

For it's work, work, work When it's dark and when it's light. 

Dig, dig, dig Get your shovel deep 

Dig, dig, dig There's no time for sleep 

For it's work, work, work Every day and every night 

For it's work, work, work When it's dark and when it's light.

-- Ten Plagues
by Jenny
Source : http://www.adatshalom.net/holidays/pesachsongs.html

Listen King Pharoah (Shirley Cohen)

Oh listen, oh listen Oh listen King Pharoah!

Oh listen, oh listen Please let my people go. 

They want to go away,

They work too hard all day.

King Pharoah, King Pharoah,

What do you say?

 "No, No, No. I will not let them go."

" No, no, no, he will not let them go."

-- Ten Plagues
by N B
Source : Tradition

אֵלּוּ עֶשֶׂר מַכּוֹת שֶׁהֵבִיא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל הַמִּצְרִים בְּמִצְרַים , וְאֵלוּ הֵן

Eilu eser makot sheheivi hakadosh baruch hu al hamitzrim b'mitzrayim, v'eilu hein:

These are the Plagues that the holy one, blessed be he, brought upon Egypt.

דָּם וָאֵשׁ וְתִימְרוֹת עָשָׁן

Dam V’eish V’tim’ro ashan

“Blood, and fire and pillars of smoke…”

“Before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes, I will set wonders in the sky and on the earth… blood, fire and pillars of smoke: The sun shall turn to darkness and the moon into blood.” Joel 3:3

אֵלּוּ עֶשֶׂר מַכּוֹת שֶׁהֵבִיא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל הַמִּצְרִים בְּמִצְרַים , וְאֵלוּ הֵן:

Eilu eser makot sheheivi hakadosh baruch hu al hamitzrim b'mitzrayim, v'eilu hein:

These are the Plagues that the holy one, blessed be he, brought upon Egypt.

Blood | Dom | דָּם

Frogs | Tzfardeyah | צְפֵרְדֵּע

Lice | Kinim | כִּנִים

Beasts | Arov | עָרוֹב

Cattle Plague | Dever | דֶּבֶר

Boils | Sh’chin | שְׁחִין

Hail | Barad | בָּרד

Locusts | Arbeh | אַרְבֶּה

Darkness | Choshech | חשֶׁךְ

Slaying of First Born |Makat Bechorot | מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת

-- Cup #2 & Dayenu

דַּיֵינוּ

כַּמָה מַעֲלוֹת טוֹבוֹת לַמָּקוֹם עָלֵינוּ!

אִלוּ הוֹצִיאָנוּ מִמִצְרַים, וְלֹא עָשָׂה בָּהֶם שְׁפָטִים, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ עָשָׂה בָּהֶם שְׁפָטִים, וְלֹא עָשָׂה בֵאלֹהֵיהֶם, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ עָשָׂה בֵאלֹהֵיהֶם, וְלֹא הָרַג אֶת בְּכוֹרֵיהֶם, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ הָרַג אֶת בְּכוֹרֵיהֶם, וְלֹא נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת מָמוֹנָם, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת מָמוֹנָם, וְלֹא קָרַע לָנוּ אֶת הַיָּם, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ קָרַע לָנוּ אֶת הַיָּם, וְלֹא הֶעֱבֵירָנוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ בֶּחָרָבָה, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ הֶעֱבֵירָנוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ בֶּחָרָבָה, וְלֹא שְׁקַע צָרֵנוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ שִׁקַע צָרֵנוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ, וְלֹא סִפֵּק צָרְכֵּנוּ בּמִדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ סִפֵּק צָרְכֵּנוּ בּמִדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה, וְלֹא הֶאֱכִילָנוּ אֶת הַמָּן, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ הֶאֱכִילָנוּ אֶת הַמָּן, וְלֹא נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת הַשַׁבָּת, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ נָתַן לָנוּ אֶת הַשַׁבָּת, וְלֹא קֵרְבָנוּ לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַי, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ קֵרְבָנוּ לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַי, וְלֹא נַָתַן לָנוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ נַָתַן לָנוּ אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, וְלֹא הִכְנִיסָנוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּיֵינוּ.

אִלוּ הִכְנִיסָנוּ לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְלֹא בָנָה לָנוּ אֶת בֵּית הַבְּחִירָה, דַּיֵינוּ

Kama ma’a lot tovot lamakom aleinu.

Ilu hotzi’anu mimitzrayim, v’lo asah bahem shfatim, dayenu.

Ilu asah bahem shfatim, v’lo asah vailoheihem, dayenu.

Ilu asah vailoheihem, v’lo harag et bichoraihem, dayenu.

Ilu harag et bichoraihem, v’lo natan lanu mamonam, dayenu.

Ilu natan lanu mamonam, v’lo karah lanu et hayam, dayenu.

Ilu karah lanu et hayam, v’lo he’evairanu bitocho becheravah, dayenu.

Ilu he’evairanu bitocho becheravah, v’lo shikah tzareinu b’tocho, dayenu.

Ilu shikah tzareinu b’tocho, v’lo sifek tzarchainu bamidbar arba’im shana, dayneu.

Ilu sifek tzarchainu bamidbar arba’im shana, v’lo he’echilanu et haman, dayenu.

Ilu he’echilanu et haman, v’lo natan lanu et hashabbat, dayenu.

Ilu natan lanu et hashabbat, v’lo karvanu lifnei har Sinai, dayenu.

Ilu karvanu lifnei har Sinai, v’lo natan lanu et hatorah, dayenu.

Ilu natan lanu et hatorah, v’lo hichnisanu l’eretz Yisrael, dayenu.

Ilu hicnisanu l’eretz Yisrael, v’lo vana lanu et bait habchirah, dayenu.

God has bestowed many favors upon us.

Had He brought us out of Egypt, and not executed judgments against the Egyptians, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He executed judgments against the Egyptians, and not their gods, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He executed judgments against their gods and not put to death their firstborn, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He put to death their firstborn, and not given us their riches, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He given us their riches, and not split the Sea for us, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He split the Sea for us, and not led us through it on dry land, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He led us through it on dry land, and not sunk our foes in it, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He sunk our foes in it, and not satisfied our needs in the desert for forty years, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He satisfied our needs in the desert for forty years, and not fed us the manna, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He fed us the manna, and not given us the Sabbath, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He given us the Sabbath, and not brought us to Mount Sinai, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He brought us to Mount Sinai, and not given us the Torah, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He given us the Torah, and not brought us into Israel, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

Had He brought us into Israel, and not built the Temple for us, It would have been enough – Dayyenu

From our seat around the Seder table, it's easy for us to sing "Dayeinu" and claim that :each one of these good things would have been enough to earn our thanks." but for those who are in the middle of liberation it is much harder to constantly be appreciative, especially during 40 years of desert wanderings. in fact, our ancestors were infamous for their lack of appreciation, their selective memory about the slavery in Egypt, their stubbornness and complaints:

"We fondly remember the fish that we could eat in Egypt at no cost, along with the cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions and garlic. but now our spirits are dried up, with nothing but the manna before our eyes..." (Numbers 11:5-6)

Some families, following the Afghani and Persian custom, pull out green onions and the occasional leek, and - upon reaching the ninth stanza about the mana - whip each other lightly with the green onion stalks - as punishment for our ancestral stubbornness - every time they sing the refrain "Dayeinu". (A Night to Remember: The Haggadah of contemporary voices, Mishael Zion and Noam Zion, p.85)

Tonight, as you symbolically reproach one another, think about what might be holding you back, what might be keeping you in the past, unable to move forward, as the Israelites were unable to do.

-- Cup #2 & Dayenu
Source : Various sources

We have now told the story of Passover…but wait! We’re not quite done. There are still some symbols on our seder plate we haven’t talked about yet. Rabban Gamliel would say that whoever didn’t explain the shank bone, matzah, and marror (or bitter herbs) hasn’t done Passover justice.

The shank bone represents the Pesach, the special lamb sacrifice made in the days of the Temple for the Passover holiday. It is called the pesach, from the Hebrew word meaning “to pass over,” because the Holy One, blessed be He passed over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt during the last plague of the slaying of the first born.

On that first Passover night in Egypt, the Jews put blood on the door posts, and the Angel of Death "passed over" the Jewish houses. Actually most people think the blood was on the outside of the door, but really the blood was on the inside. The Jews sat there that night, staring at the blood. They had a lot to think about. They were going to walk out of Egypt the next morning and enter into a covenant with Hashem.

Why do we use a lamb? What is the significance of eating an animal for the purpose of remembering such an event? While we were slaves under the Egyptians for 400 years, we became dominated by the Egyptian culture. It is said that we only retained three things after a 400 year enslavement: our clothing, our names, and our Hebrew language. As we know from the last plague, the first born has a tremendous value in Egyptian culture. Our exodus was scheduled for the month of Nissan, and the astrological symbol of the month of Nissan is Aries, the Ram. The 15th day is the apex of a lunar month, and so the slaughtering of the ram-god of the Egyptians was to be done on the evening of the full moon of it's very own month (ostensibly the height of it's powers). The Egyptians would be powerless to prevent it!

We go so far as to call the shabbat before passover Shabbat Hagadol, "the great shabbat". This is the day that Hashem commanded the jews to tie the offering four days before it was slaughtered. As the Jews were going around Egypt collecting lambs on a Saturday, the Egyptians started asking questions. The Jewish response that they were for the purpose of slaughter, ritual, and consumption was like flaunting their intentions in the faces of their Egyptian neighbors and oppressors. Sheep were chosen precisely because they were taboo to the Egyptians and any attempt to slaughter them would be resisted forcefully. It was as though we were daring them to interfere with us in the wake of a series of plagues against them.

When the Jews further told the Egyptians that the purpose of this ritual would be to protect every Jewish household from the upcoming plague of slaying the first-born, it actually started a civil war in Egypt. They knew that up till now, Hashem had a good track record for following through with his plagues and so they started fighting each other to try to put a stop to this madness. We call it Shabbat Hagadol because the Egyptians killed each other over this plague, and the direct result of us slaying the Egyptian god was us being able to leave the Egyptian land and the Egyptian culture following the slaying of the first-born.

So every year we consume the paschal lamb to remember that in our lives we still are slaves to a permeating culture that is not our own. What are the gods in this generation? Where do people put all the power and worship? Career, fashion, fame, status, wealth. We are all worshipping something. We are all religious. We need to ask: what are the idols I worship? Where do I give my power? We are dominated by forces that cause us to abandon our Jewish laws, customs, and ideals. We must literally slaughter the false god of these forces in order to rise above them and return to our core values. Find your idol. Then exchange it for the real thing. That is the Passover offering.

The matzah reminds us that when our ancestors were finally free to leave Egypt, there was no time to pack or prepare. Our ancestors grabbed whatever dough was made and set out on their journey, letting their dough bake into matzah as they fled. This powerful symbol of this holiday actually has a deeper meaning.

There is a common misconception that is a source of confusion around Matzah. We call it the bread of affliction, yet also ate this bread as we were redeemed from Egypt. The reason for this is that we actually ate matzah as our daily bread as slaves in Egypt. It is called the bread of affliction because our oppressors in Egypt fed us matzah because it didn't need the attention of bread, it was an act of demeaning us, and as we all experience on passover, it is a flat bread that expands in our stomachs, enabling us to feel full on an empty stomach and keep working as slaves.

Why then did we make matzah on our way out of Egypt? We actually knew we were to leave Egypt the night before we left. So couldn't we prepare leavened bread for our departure? We ate matzah even as we left Egypt because we were still humbled by slavery in Egypt. Just as the bread was flat, so too was our ego.

This flat ego would then transform into a leavened or inflated ego as we are commanded to eat leavened bread on the holiday of Shavuot -- the day which we received the Torah at mount sinai. 

All throughout the year we eat bread that is leavened. We have an ego that is inflated by aspects that we think define us. Today we walk around with signs that say, "I'm a doctor," "I have washboard abs," "I have 10,000 square feet in my house." On passover however, we attempt to suspend this ego. We use matzah to recall how we were humbled by slavery for 400 years. We use this remembrance to humble ourselves with the goal of finally inflating our ego with pride in receiving the Torah and in being Jewish.

The bitter herbs provide a visceral reminder of the bitterness of slavery, the life of hard labor our ancestors experienced in Egypt. The Egyptians embittered our lives with hard labor: with mortar and bricks, with every kind of work in the fields. All the work which they made them do was rigorous.

In every generation one must loop upon himself as if he personally had come out from Egypt, as the Bible says: "and thau shalt tell thy son on that day, saying, it is because of that which the Eternal did for me when I went forth from Egypt." For it was not alone our forefathers whome the Holy One, blessed be He, redeemed; He redeemed us too, with them, as it is said: "He brought us out from there that He might lead us to and give us the land which He pledged to our forefathers."

Raise the cup of wine and say:

Therefore, it is our duty to thank and to praise in song and prayer, to glorify and extol Him who performed all these wonders for our forefathers and for us. He brought us out from slavery to freedom, from anguish to joy, from sorrow to festivity, from darkness to great light. Let us therefore sing before Him a new song. Praise the Eternal.

Put down the cup and continue:

Halleluyah-- Praise the Eternal. Praise, ye servants of the Eternal, praise the name of the Eternal. Blessed be the name of the Eternal from now and for evermore; From the rising of the sun to its descent.

-- Cup #2 & Dayenu
by Jenny

Betzeit Yisrael Mimitzrayim

בצאת ישראל ממצרים

Betzeit yisrael mimitzrayim,                           בְּצֵאת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם
beit Ya'akov meam loez.                                     בֵּית יַעֲקֹב מֵעַם לֹעֵז
Haytah yehudah lekodsho                                 הָיְתָה יְהוּדָה לְקָדְשׁוֹ
Yisrael mamshelotav.                                           יִשְׂרָאֵל מַמְשְׁלוֹתָיו

Hayam ra'ah vayanos,                                               הַיָּם רָאָה וַיָּנֹס
hayarden yisov leachor.                                       הַיַּרְדֵּן יִסֹּב לְאָחוֹר
Heharim rakedu cheilim,                                  הֶהָרִים רָקְדוּ כְאֵילִים
gevaot kivnei tzon.                                                   גְּבָעוֹת כִּבְנֵי צֹאן

Mah lecha hayam ki tanus,                                מַה לְּךָ הַיָּם כִּי תָנוּס
hayarden tisov leachor.                                       הַיַּרְדֵּן תִּסֹּב לְאָחוֹר
Heharim tirkedu cheilim,                                הֶהָרִים תִּרְקְדוּ כְאֵילִים
gevaot kivnei tzon.                                                  גְּבָעוֹת כִּבְנֵי צֹאן

Milifnei adon chuli aretz,                                מִלִּפְנֵי אָדוֹן חוּלִי אָרֶץ
Mlifnei eloah ya'akov.                                          מִלִּפְנֵי אֱלוֹהַּ יַעֲקֹב
Hahofechi hatzur agam mayim,                   הַהֹפְכִי הַצּוּר אֲגַם מָיִם
Chalamish lemayeno mayim.                           חַלָּמִישׁ לְמַעְיְנוֹ מָיִם

Translation:

When Israel came forth out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language;​
Judah​ became His sanctuary​, Israel His dominion.​
The sea saw it, and fled; the Jordan turned backward.​
The mountains​​ skipped like rams, the hills like young sheep.
What is has come upon you, the sea, that you flee? The Jordan, that you turn backward?​
The mountains​​, that you skip like rams; the hills, like young sheep?
Tremb​le, earth, at the presence of the Master, at the presence of the God of Jacob;
Who turned the rock into a pool of water, the flint into a fountain of waters.

Trans​lation based on Jewish Publicati​on Society Bible (1917) (public domain)

-- Cup #2 & Dayenu
by Jenny
Source : Original

As we say the blessing, we raise the second cup and lean to the left.

-- Cup #2 & Dayenu
Source : http://keshet.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/SZ_lgbt-haggadah-2012.pdf
Rachtzah
Source : The Wandering is Over Haggadah, JewishBoston.com
As we now transition from the formal telling of the Passover story to the celebratory meal, we once again wash our hands to prepare ourselves. In Judaism, a good meal together with friends and family is itself a sacred act, so we prepare for it just as we prepared for our holiday ritual, recalling the way ancient priests once prepared for service in the Temple.

Some people distinguish between washing to prepare for prayer and washing to prepare for food by changing the way they pour water on their hands. For washing before food, pour water three times on your right hand and then three times on your left hand.

After you have poured the water over your hands, recite this short blessing.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ מֶֽלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָֽׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו, וְצִוָּנוּ  עַל נְטִילַת יָדָֽיִם

Baruch Atah Adonai, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam, asher kid’shanu b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu al n’tilat yadayim.

We praise God, Ruler of Everything, who made us holy through obligations, commanding us to wash our hands.

Motzi-Matzah

Take the 3 matzot - the broken piece between the two whole ones – hold them in your hand and recite the following blessing:

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ.

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam, hamotzi lechem min ha-aretz.

Praised are you, Adonai, Lord our God, Ruler of the universe, who provides sustenance from the earth.

Before eating the matzah, put the bottom matzah back in its place and continue, reciting the following blessing while holding only the top and middle piece of matzah.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה.

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam, asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu al achilat matzah.

Praised are you, Adonai, Lord our God, Ruler of the universe, who has taught us the way of holiness through commandments, commanding us to eat matzah.

Break the top and middle matzot into pieces and distribute them everyone at the table to eat a while reclining to the left.

Motzi-Matzah
Source : Ezter Haggadah

However, scholars have noted that long before the Jews celebrated Passover, farmers of the Middle East celebrated Chag Ha-matsot, the festival of unleavened bread, at this time of year. This was a festival where unleavened bread was made from the new grain harvest that took place at this time of the year        

    The old fermented dough was thrown out so that last year's grain would not be mixed with this year's. Therefore, the new season began with the eating of unleavened bread--matsah. Later on, the Jewish people incorporated this agricultural festival into the celebration of freedom and renewal we now call Passover.

Maror
Source : JewishBoston.com

Dipping the bitter herb in sweet charoset | maror  |מָרוֹר   

  In creating a holiday about the joy of freedom, we turn the story of our bitter history into a sweet celebration. We recognize this by dipping our bitter herbs into the sweet charoset. We don’t totally eradicate the taste of the bitter with the taste of the sweet… but doesn’t the sweet mean more when it’s layered over the bitterness?

ברוּךְ אַתָּה יְיַָ אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ מֶֽלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָֽׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּֽנוּ עַל אֲכִילַת מרוֹר:

Baruch Atah Adonai, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam, asher kid’shanu b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu al achilat maror.

We praise God, Ruler of Everything, who made us holy through obligations, commanding us to eat bitter herbs.

Maror
Source : Rabbi Zvi Hirschfield in http://elmad.pardes.org/2016/04/the-pardes-companion-to-the-haggadah/

The question of why we eat maror would at first glance appear to be an obvious one. When I probe a little deeper, however, two questions emerge for me. First, why would I want to evoke pain and suffering on a night when I want to feel celebratory? My second question goes to the ritual itself. How is eating lettuce or horseradish supposed to help me experience or relate to the bitterness of slavery? No matter how much fiery hot horseradish we put in our mouths, it seems to me we are not any closer to understanding the experience of the Israelites in Egypt.

I believe that our use of maror at the seder is less about experiencing the hardships of Egypt, but rather an opportunity to experience and reflect how we can meaningfully engage sorrow and pain in both our personal and national lives. Suffering and sadness are part of everyone’s story. It is the unavoidable price we pay for being vulnerable and limited. We need tools and opportunities to integrate the hard and painful parts of our lives into our story without allowing them to erase all the joy and gratitude we still want to experience.

The Baal HaTanya (Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liady, 1745-1812) draws a fascinating distinction between two types of sadness. The first he refers to as bitterness, a form of regret or sadness that emerges from a sense that things are broken, or less than ideal. This form of sadness is positive, he says, because it emerges from a place of idealism, hope, and a powerful desire to change. We are “bitter” because we sense that a vital and healthy part of ourselves is not finding expression in the world. It is precisely our capacity for hope and transformation that makes this type of sadness possible. Our sense of loss is informed by our appreciation for a whole. The second type of sadness is depression. This type of sadness “closes our hearts” with despair, numbs our feelings, and blocks out all joy. From this perspective, perhaps we eat maror to explore how to move from a sadness that holds us back to a sadness that can lead to growth and change. When dealing with hard things I often find I am choosing between allowing sadness to dominate my mood or trying to ignore it and put it aside altogether. The narrative of the seder refutes this false dichotomy. We don’t deny the difficulties and pain, but maybe we can put it into a wider context that includes joy and gratitude. We make room for sadness but we don’t let it take over. We eat the maror with the matza.

Another approach emerges from a comment of Rabbi Yeshayahu Horowitz (1568-1630) in a drasha about Pesach. Commenting on the talmudic requirement to chew the maror as opposed to just swallowing it, he writes that our teeth represent 32 levels of wisdom, and that by chewing the maror with our teeth we sweeten it. As opposed to denying difficulty or sadness we must engage it and reflect upon it. Although I am never grateful for going through the painful moments of my life, I am sometimes surprised at what they teach me about myself and who I am. Both as individuals and as a people, we are products of our challenges as much as our successes; sadness as well as joy. While I cannot deny the hard feelings associated with the difficult or sad moments of my life, I can “sweeten” them by accepting them as an essential part of my story. The suffering in Egypt and the memory of that suffering was part of what made the Jewish people.

 Our eating of maror and talking about slavery might also carry with it a lesson about the negative power of shame. I don’t like sharing my stories of pain or difficulty. They often feel like stories of failure. It often feels like my pain is a result of my inadequacy in managing my life or lack of success. If I were a better person, more capable, wiser, more powerful, my story would be all about happiness. Sadness becomes associated with failure. By including the pain and humiliation in our national story of birth and redemption we are reminding ourselves that pain, sadness, and difficulty are part of everyone’s story. I don’t need to paper over it or pretend it’s not there. My challenge is to include fully the hard parts of my story, both individually and nationally, and still feel joy and gratitude. Our plates include bitter herbs right next to the matza and the wine.

Rabbi Zvi Hirschfield teaches Talmud, Halakha and Jewish Thought.

Koreich
Source : Rabbi Andrea Steinberger

Korech:  Mixing the Bitter and the Sweet

One of my favorite moments of the seder comes just before dinner is served.  It is called Korech.  It is also known as the Hillel sandwich.  It is the moment when we eat maror (the bitter herbs) and the charoset (the sweet apple and nut mixture) on a piece of matzah.  What a strange custom to eat something so bitter and something so sweet all in one bite.  I can taste it now, just thinking about it, and the anticipation is almost too much to bear.  I dread it, and I long for it all at the same time.  Why do we do such a thing?  We do it to tell our story.

The Jewish people tells our story through our observance of Jewish holidays throughout the year.  The holidays of Passover, Chanukah and Purim remind us just how close the Jewish people has come to utter destruction and how we now celebrate our strength and our survival with great joy, remembering God’s help and our persistence, and our own determination to survive. 

We also tell the story throughout our lifetime of Jewish rituals.  The breaking of a glass at a Jewish wedding reminds us that even in times of life’s greatest joys we remember the sadness of the destruction of the Temple.  When we build a home, some Jews leave a part unfinished to remember that even when building something new, we sense the times of tragedy in the Jewish people.  And on Passover we mix the sweet charoset with the bitter maror, mixing bitter and sweet of slavery and freedom all in one bite.

Throughout each year and throughout our lifetimes, we challenge ourselves to remember that even in times of strength, it is better to sense our vulnerability, rather than bask in our success.  We all have memories of times in which bitter and sweet were mixed in our lives, all in the same bite.  Judaism says, sometimes life is like that.  We can celebrate and mourn all at the same time.  And somehow, everything will be ok.  What is your korech moment?

 

Koreich
Source : www.Chabad.org

Take the third Matzah, and also a kezayit (the volume of one olive) of the Chazeret - which is to be dipped into Charoset. Combine the two [like a sandwich], and say the following:

Thus did Hilel do at the time of the Bet HaMikdash: He would combine Passover -- lamb, Matzah and Maror and eat them together, as it said: "They shall eat it with Matzah and bitter herbs."

 

Now eat them together -- in the reclining position.

Koreich
Source : Leah Rosenthal in http://elmad.pardes.org/2016/04/the-pardes-companion-to-the-haggadah/
After performing most of the central mitzvot of the evening (telling the story of the Exodus eating matza and maror, etc.) and just before we are about to enjoy the festive holiday meal, the haggadah structures a moment in which we symbolically repeat the practice of Hillel the Elder who would “wrap” his portion of the paschal offering with matza and maror and eat it as a type of sandwich, in literal fulfillment of the verse “it shall be eaten on matzot and maror”. We too prepare a combination of matza and maror (and haroset) and eat in remembrance of this practice and of the Pesach tradition during the time when the Temple still stood.

Let us pause a moment to consider the character of Hillel, a central and formative personality within the pantheon of Rabbinic figures, and to consider why, perhaps, the haggadah asks us to spend a moment recreating Hillel’s personal practice of eating the Pesach sacrifice.

Hillel, founder of the great and influential Beit Hillel, is well known for his personal qualities of tolerance, humility and pursuit of peace. Many of the tales of Hillel and his teachings reflect this characterization. This is expressed in famous citations such as: “Hillel says: Be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving your fellow creatures and drawing them near to the law.” The quality of being a rodef shalom (pursuer of peace) requires the ability to recognize the value of different perspectives and the skill of unifying conflicting truths into a harmonious whole. It requires the recognition that single individuals perceive only a portion of the complete truth. Hillel says: “If I am not for myself, who is for me? And when I am for myself, what am I? And if not now, when?"

The Rabbis of the Talmudic world joined Hillel in this understanding, promoting this view and ruling that Halakha (Jewish law) should follow Beit Hillel as “…they were kindly and modest, they studied their own rulings and those of Beit Shammai (Hillel’s halakhic opponent), and were even “...so [humble] as to mention the actions of Beit Shammai before their own." Appropriately, the haggadah depicts Hillel as requiring the consumption of the Pesach sacrifice the food of redemption, through an act of combining − the korekh. Only the harmonious merging of a variety of components produces the true redemptive experience

Leah Rosenthal teaches Talmud

Koreich
Source : Original

In Talmud Pesachim, Rava teaches, "A person who swallows matzah without chewing fills the mitzvah, the commandment, to eat matzah. However, a person who swallows maror without chewing doesn't fulfill the mitzvah to eat maror."

Matzah is Biblical fast food. Matzah is flat because the Hebrews were in such a hurry to get out of Egypt, they didn't wait for their bread to rise. They rushed out, eating crackers, because they had to eat something. Matzah is optimistic, portable, light and undemanding.

Rashbam says that the mitzvah of eating matzah isn't connected to taste. It's connected to story. The Seder ends with a literal countdown, numbering the days until Shavuot, the holiday when the Hebrews get the Torah. Matzah is the food of the future. We eat matzah on Passover to remind us that we're on our way.

Charoset and Maror are the tastes of the past. Charoset is a sweet memory. Maror is a bitter encounter made fresh. Charoset is the sweetness of family, Maror the bitterness of Holocaust. These are our roots as individual people and as a People. Maror wants attention, and loves to get a reaction. Charoset is sweet, and also thick and heavy. Charoset is said to be the material the Hebrews used to make bricks. Sweetness between people and bricks are made of the same material. The presence of both forms a foundation.

The Hillel sandwich is the three of these together. Matzah, Maror and Charoset. Together, they are the present.

Shulchan Oreich
Tzafun

"Find" the  Afikomen  and distribute the some of the found piece to each person to eat.

Tzafoon means "The Hidden." It is time to search for the missing half of the middle matzah ( afikomen ). When someone, usually a child, finds the afikomen , and it fits the half on the Seder plate, the child ransoms it as a reward, so that the seder might continue. A piece of the afikomen , which means dessert, is distributed to all. This is the last food eaten except for the remaining two cups of wine.

The playfulness of finding the afikomen reminds us that we balance our solemn memories of slavery with a joyous celebration of freedom. As we eat the afikomen, our last taste of matzah for the evening, we are grateful for moments of silliness and happiness in our lives.

Bareich
Source : http://www.tikkun.org/nextgen/passover-haggadah-supplement-2011-2

If you’ve eaten and been satisfied, thank God for all that we have been given

Sing together the blessing over the third cup of wine.

Bareich

Barech

בָּרֵךְ

Pour the third cup of wine and recite Birkat Hamazon (Blessing after the Meal).

Include parentheses when there is a minayn present.

Leader:

רַבּוֹתַי נְבָרֵךְ.

Rabotai n’vareich.

Participants:

יְהִי שֵׁם יְיָ מְבֹרָךְ מֵעַתָּה וְעַד עוֹלָם.

Y’hee sheim Adonai m’vo-rach mei-atah v’ad olam.

Leader:

יְהִי שֵׁם יְיָ מְבֹרָךְ מֵעַתָּה וְעַד עוֹלָם. בִּרְשׁוּת מָרָנָן וְרַבָּנָן וְרַבּוֹתַי נְבָרֵך (אֱלֹהֵינוּ) שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלוֹ.

Y’hee sheim Adonai m’vorach mei-atah v’ad olam. Beer-shut maranan v’rabanan v’rabotai, n’vareich (Eloheinu) she’achalnu mee-shelo.

Participants:

בָּרוּךְ (אֱלֹהֵינוּ) שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלוֹ וּבְטוּבוֹ חָיִּינוּ.

Baruch (Eloheinu) she’achalnu mishelo uv’tuvo chayinu.

Leader:

בָּרוּךְ (אֱלֹהֵינוּ) שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלוֹ וּבְטוּבוֹ חָיִּינוּ.

Baruch (Eloheinu) she’achalnu mishelo uv’tuvo chayinu.

All together:

בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבָרוּך שְׁמוֹ.

Baruch hu u-varuch sh’mo.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, הַזָּן אֶת הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּטוּבוֹ בְּחֵן בְּחֶסֶד וּבְרַחֲמִים הוּא נוֹתֵן לֶחֶם לְכָל בָּשָׂר, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ. וּבְטוּבוֹ הַגָּדוֹל תָּמִיד לֹא חָסַר לָנוּ וְאַל יֶחְסַר לָנוּ מָזוֹן לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד. בַּעֲבוּר שְׁמוֹ הַגָּדוֹל כִּי הוּא אֵל זָן וּמְפַרְנֵס לַכֹּל וּמֵטִיב לַכֹּל וּמֵכִין מָזוֹן לְכָל בְּרִיּוֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, הַזָּן אֶת הַכֹּל.

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam, hazan et ha-olam kulo b’tuvo, b’chein b’chesed uv-rachamim, hu noten lechem l’chol basar, ki l’olam chasdo, uv-tuvo hagadol, tamid lo chasar lanu v’al yechsar lanu mazon l’olam va’ed. Ba-avur sh’mo hagadol, ki hu Eil zan um’farneis lakol, u-meitiv lakol u-meichin mazon l’chol-b’riyotav asher bara. Baruch atah Adonai, hazan et hakol.

נוֹדֶה לְךָ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ עַל שֶׁהִנְחַלְתָּ לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ אֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה טוֹבָה וּרְחָבָה, וְעַל שֶׁהוֹצֵאתָנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וּפְדִיתָנוּ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים, וְעַל בְּרִיתְךָ שֶׁחָתַמְתָּ בִּבְשָׂרֵנוּ, וְעַל תּוֹרָתְךָ שֶׁלִמַּדְתָּנוּ, וְעַל חֻקֶּיךָ שֶׁהוֹדַעְתָּנוּ, וְעַל חַיִּים חֵן וָחֶסֶד שֶׁחוֹנַנְתָּנוּ, וְעַל אֲכִילַת מָזוֹן שָׁאַתָּה זָן וּמְפַרְנֵס אוֹתָנוּ תָּמִיד בְּכָל יוֹם וּבְכָל עֵת וּבְכָל שָׁעָה.

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam, hazan et ha-olam kulo b’tuvo, b’chein b’chesed uv-rachamim, hu noten lechem l’chol basar, ki l’olam chasdo, uv-tuvo hagadol, tamid lo chasar lanu v’al yechsar lanu mazon l’olam va’ed. Ba-avur sh’mo hagadol, ki hu Eil zan um’farneis lakol, u-meitiv lakol u-meichin mazon l’chol-b’riyotav asher bara. Baruch atah Adonai, hazan et hakol.

וְעַל הַכֹּל יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ מוֹדִים לָךְ וּמְבָרְכִים אוֹתָךְ יִתְבָּרַךְ שִׁמְךָ בְּפִי כָל חַי תָּמִיד לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד. כַּכָּתוּב, וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבֵרַכְתָּ אֶת יְיָ אֱלֹהֶיךָ עַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָךְ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, עַל הָאָרֶץ וְעַל הַמָּזוֹן.

רַחֶם נָא יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל עַמֶּךָ וְעַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם עִירֶךָ וְעַל צִיּוֹן מִשְׁכַּן כְּבוֹדֶךָ וְעַל מַלְכוּת בֵּית דָּוִד מְשִׁיחֶךָ וְעַל הַבַּיִת הַגָּדוֹל וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ שֶׁנִּקְרָא שִׁמְךָ עָלָיו. אֱלֹהֵינוּ אָבִינוּ רְעֵנוּ זוּנֵנוּ פַּרְנְסֵנוּ וְכַלְכְּלֵנוּ וְהַרְוִיחֵנוּ וְהַרְוַח לָנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ מְהֵרָה מִכָּל צָרוֹתֵינוּ. וְנָא אַל תַּצְרִיכֵנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ לֹא לִידֵי מַתְּנַת בָּשָׂר וָדָם וְלֹא לִידֵי הַלְוָאָתָם, כִּי אִם לְיָדְךָ הַמְּלֵאָה הַפְּתוּחָה הַקְּדוֹשָׁה וְהָרְחָבָה, שֶׁלּא נֵבוֹשׁ וְלֹא נִכָּלֵם לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד.

V’al hakol Adonai Eloheinu anachnu modim lach um’varchim otach, yitbarach shimcha b’fi kol chai tamid l’olam va’ed. Kakatuv, v’achalta v’savata uveirachta et Adonai Elohecha al ha’aretz hatova asher natan lach. Baruch atah Adonai al ha-aretz v’al hamazon.

Racheim na Adonai Eloheinu al Yisrael amecha v’al Y’rushalayim irecha v’al Tzion mishkan k’vodecha v’al malchut beit David m’shichecha v’al habayit hagadol v’hakadosh shenikra shimcha alav. Eloheinu Avinu r’einu zuneinu parn’seinu v’chalk’lenu v’harvicheinu v’harvach’lanu Adonai Eloheinu m’heira mikol-tzaroteinu. V’na al tatz’richeinu Adonai Eloheinu, lo lidei matnat basar vadam v’lo lidei hal’va’atam, ki im l’yad’cha ham’lei’a hap’tucha hak’dosha v’har’chava, shelo neivosh v’lo nikaleim l’olam va’ed.

 

(On Shabbat):

רְצֵה וְהַחֲלִיצֵנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּמִצְוֹתֶיךָ וּבְמִצְוַת יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַשַׁבָּת הַגָּדוֹל וְהַקָדוֹשׂ הַזֶּה. כִּי יוֹם זֶה גָּדוֹל וְקָדוֹשׁ הוּא לְפָנֶיךָ לִשְׁבָּת בּוֹ וְלָנוּחַ בּוֹ בְּאַהֲבָה כְּמִצְוַת רְצוֹנֶךָ. וּבִרְצוֹנְךָ הָנִיחַ לָנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא צָרָה וְיָגוֹן וַאֲנָחָה בְּיוֹם מְנוּחָתֵנוּ. וְהַרְאֵנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּנֶחָמַת צִיּוֹן עִירֶךָ וּבְבִנְיַן יְרוּשָׁלַיִם עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ כִּי אַתָּה הוּא בַּעַל הַיְשׁוּעוֹת וּבַעַל הַנֶּחָמוֹת.

R’tzei v’hachalitzeinu Adonai Eloheinu b’mitzvotecha, uv’mitvat yom hash’vi’i haShabbat hagadol v’hakadosh hazeh. Ki yom zeh gadol v’kadosh hu l’fanecha, lishbat bo v’lanuach bo b’ahavah k’miztvat r’tzonecha. U’birtzoncha hani’ach lanu Adonai Eloheinu, shelo t’hei tzara v’yagon va’anacha b’yom m’nuchateinu. V’har’einu Adonai Eloheinu b’nechamat Tzion irecha, uv’vinyan Yerushalayim ir kodshecha, ki atah hu ba’al ha’y’shuot u’va’al hanechamot.

אֱלֹהֵינוּ וֵאלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ, יַעֲלֶה וְיָבֹא וְיַגִּיעַ וְיֵרָאֶה וְיֵרָצֶה וְיִשָּׁמַע וְיִפָּקֵד וְיִזָּכֵר זִכְרוֹנֵנוּ וּפִקְדּוֹנֵנוּ, וְזִכְרוֹן אֲבוֹתֵינוּ, וְזִכְרוֹן מָשִׁיחַ בֶּן דָּוִד עַבְדֶּךָ ,וְזִכְרוֹן יְרוּשָׁלַיִם עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ, וְזִכְרוֹן כָּל עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל לְפָנֶיךָ, לִפְלֵטָה לְטוֹבָה לְחֵן וּלְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים, לְחַיִּים וּלְשָׁלוֹם בְּיוֹם חַג הַמַּצּוֹת הַזֶּה. זָכְרֵנוּ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ בּוֹ לְטוֹבָה וּפָּקְדֵנוּ בוֹ לִבְרָכָה וְהוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ בוֹ לְחַיִּים. וּבִדְבַר יְשׁוּעָה וְרַחֲמִים חוּס וְחָנֵּנוּ וְרַחֵם עָלֵינוּ וְהוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ, כִּי אֵלֶיךָ עֵינֵינוּ, כִּי אֵל מֶלֶךְ חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אָתָּה

Eloheinu vEilohei avoteinu, yaleh v’yavo v’yagiah v’yeira’eh v’yeiratzeh v’yishma v’yipakeid, v’yizacheir zichroneinu ufikdoneinu, v’zichron avoteinu, v’zichron Mashiach ben David avdecha, v’zikhron Y’rushalayim ir kodshecha, v’zichron kol amkha beit Yisrael l’fanecha, lifleita l’tova l’chein ul’chesed ul’rachamim, l’chayim ul’shalom b’yom chag hamatzot hazeh zochreinu Adonai Eloheinu bo l’tova ufokdeinu vo livracha v’hoshieinu vo l’chayim. uv’dvar y’shuah v’rachamim chus v’chaneinu v’racheim aleinu v’hoshieinu ki eilecha eineinu, ki eil melech chanun vrachum ata.

וּבְנֵה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם עִיר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּמְהֵרָה בְיָמֵינוּ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, בּוֹנֵה בְרַחֲמָיו יְרוּשָׁלָיִם. אָמֵן.

Uv’nei Y’rushalayim ir hakodesh bimheira v’yameinu. Baruch atah Adonai, boneh v’rachamav Y’rushalayim. Amein.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, הָאֵל אָבִינוּ מַלְכֵּנוּ אַדִּירֵנוּ בּוֹרְאֵנוּ גֹּאֲלֵנוּ יוֹצְרֵנוּ קְדוֹשֵׁנוּ קְדוֹשׁ יַעֲקֹב, רוֹעֵנוּ רוֹעֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמֶּלֶךְ הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב לַכֹּל שֶׁבְּכָל יוֹם וָיוֹם הוּא הֵטִיב הוּא מֵטִיב הוּא יֵיטִיב לָנוּ. הוּא גְמָלָנוּ הוּא גוֹמְלֵנוּ הוּא יִגְמְלֵנוּ לָעַד לְחֵן וּלְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים וּלְרֶוַח הַצָּלָה וְהַצְלָחָה בְּרָכָה וִישׁוּעָה נֶחָמָה פַּרְנָסָה וְכַלְכָּלָה וְרַחֲמִים וְחַיִּים וְשָׁלוֹם וְכָל טוֹב, וּמִכָּל טוּב לְעוֹלָם אַל יְחַסְּרֵנוּ.

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha’olam, ha’Eil Avinu Malkeinu Adireinu Bor’einu Go’aleinu Yotz’reinu K’dosheinu k’dosh Ya’akov ro’einu ro’ei Yisrael Hamelech hatov v’hameitiv lakol sheb’chol yom vayom hu heitiv, hu meitiv, hu yeitiv lanu. Hu g’malanu hu gomleinu hu yig’m’leinu la’ad, l’chein ul’chesed ul’rachamim ul’revach hatzala v’hatzlacha, b’racha vi’shua nechama parnasa v’chalkala v’rachamim v’chayim v’shalom v’chol-tov, u’mikol tuv l’olam al y’chasreinu.

הָרַחֲמָן הוּא יִמְלֹךְ עָלֵינוּ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד. הָרַחֲמָן הוּא יִתְבָּרַךְ בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ. הָרַחֲמָן הוּא יִשְׁתַּבַּח לְדוֹר דּוֹרִים וְיִתְפָּאַר בָּנוּ לָעַד וּלְנֵצַח נְצָחִים וְיִתְהַדַּר בָּנוּ לָעַד וּלְעוֹלְמֵי עוֹלָמִים. הָרַחֲמָן הוּא יְפַרְנְסֵנוּ בְּכָבוֹד. הָרַחֲמָן הוּא יִשְׁבּר עֻלֵנוּ מֵעַל צַוָּארֵנוּ וְהוּא יוֹלִיכֵנוּ קוֹמְמִיּוּת לְאַרְצֵנוּ. הָרַחֲמָן הוּא יִשְׁלַח לָנוּ בְּרָכָה מְרֻבָּה בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְעַל שֻׁלְחָן זֶה שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ עָלָיו. הָרַחֲמָן הוּא יִשְׁלַח לָנוּ אֶת אֵלִיָּהוּ הַנָּבִיא זָכוּר לַטּוֹב וִיבַשֶּׂר לָנוּ בְּשׂוֹרוֹת טוֹבוֹת יְשׁוּעוֹת וְנֶחָמוֹת.

Harachaman hu yimloch aleinu l’olam va’ed. Harachaman hu yitbarach bashamayim u’va’aretz. Harachaman hu yishtabach l’dor dorim, v’yitpa’ar banu la’ad u’l’neitzach n’tzachim, v’yit’hadar banu la’ad ul’olmei olamim. Harachaman hu y’far’n’seinu b’chavod. Harachaman hu yishbor uleinu mei’al tzavareinu, v’hu yolicheinu kom’miyut l’artzeinu. Harachaman hu yishlach lanu b’racha m’ruba babayit hazeh, v’al shulchan zeh she’achalnu alav. Harachaman hu yishlach lanu et Eliyahu Hanavi zachur latov, vivaser lanu b’sorot tovot y’shu’ot v’nechamot.


________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Blessing after the Meal concludes by drinking the Third Cup of wine, while reclining to the left.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יי אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָפֶן.

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam, borei p'ri hagafen.

Praised are you, Adonai, Lord of the universe, who has created the fruit of the vine.

Elijah

Fill the Cup of Elijah on the table. Traditionally the youngest children open the door for Elijah. Everyone joins in singing "Eliyahu Ha-Navi" and then the door is closed.

 

שְׁפֹךְ חֲמָתְךָ אֶל הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יְדָעוּךָ וְעַל מַמְלָכוֹת אֲשֶׁר בְּשִׁמְךָ לֹא קָרָאוּ. כִּי אָכַל אֶת יַעֲקֹב וְאֶת נָוֵהוּ הֵשַׁמוּ. שְׁפֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם זַעְמֶךָ וַחֲרוֹן אַפְּךָ יַשִׂיגֵם. תִּרְדֹף בְּאַף וְתַשְׁמִידֵם מִתַּחַת שְׁמֵי יי.

Shfoch chamatcha el hagoyim asher lo y’da’ucha v’al mamlachot asher b’shimcha lo kara’u. Ki achal et Ya’akov v’et naveihu heishamu. Shfoch Aleihem zamech vacharon apcha yasigaim. Tirdof b’af v’tashmidaim mitachat shmay Adonai.

Bareich
by Jenny
Source : Original

We fill the Fourth cup along with Elijah's cup, but we wait to drink.

Bareich
Source : National Center for Jewish Healing, A Personal Passover Journal for memory and Contemplation

Open door and sing:

Eliyahu ha-navee, Eliyahu ha-Tish-bee Eliyahu, eliyahu, Eliyahu ha-Giladee Beem-hei-ra b'ya-mei-nu Yavo ei-leinu Eem ma-shee-ach ben David Eem ma-shee-ach ben David

Death and loss often lead to a sense of isolation. The doors to the heart and the doors to community and love seem to be closed. What are the beliefs and the hopes you have which can help you to open the door again?

Hallel
Source : Tovah Leah Nachmani in http://elmad.pardes.org/2016/04/the-pardes-companion-to-the-haggadah/
Praising as a spiritual practice

How is this Hallel on seder night different from all other Hallels? What are we aiming to accomplish in this Hallel of seder night?

Unlike every other holiday Hallel, the Hallel of the seder (and in synagogue) is sung at night. Unlike other Hallels, it is sung without an introductory blessing, and it is recited sitting down. Unlike every other Hallel, this Hallel is divided into two parts by eating! 

Why is Hallel sung at night? Perhaps because the miracle of the Exodus began at night with the first Passover meal, and the killing of the firstborns in Egypt. And perhaps because on other holidays there is no immediate miracle involved, whereas on this night we are not only retelling but reliving the night where our nightmare ended and our glorious national future began.

On seder night we don’t need to be told, “Praise now!” And we don’t need to stand up. In this Hallel we are spontaneously cheering the miraculous moment when Pharaoh in pajamas shouts to Moshe that every last Israelite should leave his country. We are rooting for God Who made it happen back then, on this very date and time of night. We are rooting for God Who is making it happen in perhaps less overt ways, today.

The Jerusalem Talmud claims that this Hallel is not “recited”, rather it is belted out in the kind of song which suits a miraculous moment of reclaiming our lives after a national near-death experience. It is a current, relevant, real singing of salvation, said by Jews worldwide, every year.

The first part of the Hallel is sung joyously straight after recounting the painful and bitter experiences of affliction which morphed into freedom to leave our oppressive reality.

The second and longer part of the Hallel is sung an hour or more later − after we are stuffed with food and drowsy from three cups of wine! 

This makes our eating not an act of satisfying a growling stomach, rather a glorious meal of gratitude. Thanksgiving dinner, you might say. A sanctified expression of extolling God.

It is not for us, God! It is not for us, rather for Your honorable reputation!” begins the second part of the Hallel, the Great Hallel, which follows our festive meal.

Is anyone listening? Is anyone still awake at this late hour? Are most people at the seder chatting by now, or cleaning up the kitchen? One year at our seder when I saw people nodding off, and losing steam, I ran to the toy box and pulled out big colorful pom poms for all the children and a few adults to shake crazily while we sang the Hallel .

In preparation for Hallel, a few good Yoga stretches might be in order after the meal to jumpstart people for the grand finale, because singing the Great Hallel could be the climactic moment of the entire night! 

It is for me.

On this night I attempt to identify with the pain and tortures of the darkest nights of history. On this night, in contrast, I feel more a deep connection to my modern reality in which I am SO blessed to be living, no matter how great the daily challenges around us and within me.

What are we aiming to accomplish in the Hallel? Hallel literally means PRAISE. It weaves verses and psalms of thanking praise with praising praise. In parts of Hallel we are THANKING God with all our heart and soul for taking our families out of Egypt, and for redeeming us from our narrow straits and stuck places, our own personal egypts. Singing Hallel in this case becomes a resounding TOAST of gratitude to the living God who performed spectacular signs and wonders and miracles on behalf of our ancestors – so that we can be here today.

But in other parts of Hallel we are not thanking, rather PRAISING God. Which is greater - praising or thanking? When I thank someone, I am recognizing and acknowledging what they have done for ME. But when I praise someone, or when I commend them on an action, an attitude or a character trait unrelated to me, I am seeking out and seeing them more fully for who they are. Not just for what they have done for me.

Some say that praising God is the most exalted spiritual practice there is. Some say it is like a spiritual elevator, bringing us to Higher Realms.** Toasting God with our glasses raised high Hallel is a way of saying that what You, God, do for me and what You did for my ancestors before ,me is unforgettable, but it is only a part of what You fully are, and what You desire in this world which is infinitely infinite.

The Passover story is our story, but it is also part of a larger universal story − called in our tradition the “Springtime of the World”. It is a story which has an ethical monotheistic beginning and an ethical monotheistic aim. In our own small way we hunger to to be partners in this aim when we ask, “how I can use my God given gifts and talents to to contribute to God’s world and the people who share it?"

Perhaps this is the reason we can interrupt our Hallel chorus by eating a meal on seder night. Because our Passover feast is not just chicken soup and brisket, rather it is a meal of spiritual practice. Using matza and haroset, together with maror, we are celebrating on this night the greatness of God, and the belief in our ability to partner with God to bring about the ultimate triumph of good over evil.

We needed this belief in the past, we need it in the present and it looks as if we’re going to need it big time as we look to the future.

Make Hallel the highlight of your seder

Discuss how we have partnered with God since last Pesach to bring about a more ethical family, community, or beyond

Invite your guests to sing, and even get up and dance in praise of God

Make a spiritual practice of praising by seeking out the good qualities and genuinely commending people we meet at the seder

Invite people around the table to close their eyes, or to look around − and to first thank and then praise God in their own words

Hallel
Source : Abraham Joshua Heschel Quote, Design by Haggadot.com

Hallel
by Ana
Source : The Union Haggadah, ed. by The Central Council of American Rabbis, at sacred-texts.com

The cups are filled for the fourth time.

The leader lifts the cup of wine and reads:
The festive service is completed. With songs of praise, we have lifted up the cups symbolizing the divine promises of salvation, and have called upon the name of God. As we offer the benediction over the fourth cup, let us again lift our souls to God in faith and in hope. May He who broke Pharaoh's yoke for ever shatter all fetters of oppression, and hasten the day when swords shall, at last, be broken and wars ended. Soon may He cause the glad tidings of redemption to be heard in all lands, so that mankind—freed from violence and from wrong, and united in an eternal covenant of brotherhood—may celebrate the universal Passover in the name of our God of freedom.

All read in unison:

May God bless the whoel house of Israel with freedom, and keep us safe from danger everywhere. Amen.

May God cause the light of His countenance to shine upon all men, and dispel the darkness of ignorance and of prejudice. Amen. 

May He be gracious unto us. Amen.

May God lift up His countenance upon our country and render it a true home of liberty and a bulwark of justice. And may He grant peace unto all mankind. Amen



‏בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ מֶֽלֶךְ הָֽעוֹלָֽם בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּֽפָּן׃‎

 BORUCH ATTO ADONOI ELOHENU MELECH HO‘OLOM BORE P’RI HAGGOFEN

Praised art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who createst the fruit of the vine



Hallel

What follows is a short selection of the traditional Hallel sung at this point in the seder. Feel free to look into the back of the book for more song suggestions, and start them up!

יי זְכָרָנוּ יְבָרֵךְ. יְבָרֵךְ אֶת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, יְבָרֵךְ אֶת בֵּית אַהֲרֹ. יְבָרֵךְ יִרְאֵי יי, הַקְּטַנִים עִם הַגְּדֹלִים. יֹסֵף יי עֲלֵיכֶם, עֲלֵיכֶם וְעַל בְּנֵיכֶם. בְּרוּכִים אַתֶּם לַיי, עֹשֵׂה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ. הַשָּׁמַיִם שָׁמַיִם לַיי,וְהָאָרֶץ נָתַן לִבְנֵי אָדָם. לֹא הַמֵּתִים יְהַלְלוּיָהּ ,וְלֹא כָּל יֹרדֵי דוּמָה. וַאֲנַחְנוּ נְבָרֵךְ יָהּ, מֵעַתָּה וְעַד עוֹלָם, הַלְלוּיָהּ.

Adonai z'charanu y'vareich, y'vareich et beit yisra-el, y'vareich et beit aharon. Y'vareich yirei Adonai, hak'tanim im hag'doleem. Yoseif Adonai aleichem, aleichem v'al b'neichem. B'rucheem atem l'Adonai, oseih shamayeem va-aretz. Hashamayeem shamayeem l'Adonai, v'ha-aretz natan livnei adam. Lo hameiteem y'hal'lu yah, v'lo kol yor'dei dumah. Va-anachnu n'vareich yah, mei-atah v'ad olam, hal'luyah.

The Lord is mindful of us and will bless us;
 He will bless the house of Israel;
 He will bless the house of Aaron; 
He will bless those who fear the Lord, small and great. May the Lord bless you and increase you, you and your children. You are blessed by the Lord, Maker of heaven and earth.
The heaven is the Lord's, but earth has been given to mankind. The dead cannot praise the Lord, nor can any who go down into silence. We will bless the Lord now and forever. Halleluyah.

.

.

מִן הַמֵּצַר קָרָאתִי יָּהּ, עָנָּנִי בַמֶרְחַב יָהּ.

Min hameitzar karati yah, anani vamerchav yah.

From the narrow I called to the Lord, God answered me in the great freedom of space.

.

.

פִּתְחוּ לִי שַׁעֲרֵי צֶדֶק, אָבֹא בָם, אוֹדֶה יָהּ. זֶה הַשַּׁעַר לַיי, צַדִּיקִים יָבֹאוּ בוֹ.

Pitchu li sha-arei tzedek, avo vam odeh yah. Zeh hasha-ar l’Adonai, tzadikim yavo-u vo.

Open the gates of righteousness, that I may enter and praise the Lord.
This is the gateway to the Lord, the righteous shall enter through it.

.

.

One person sings a line, then everyone repeats.

Od'cha ki anitani, vat'hi li lishuah. ......................... אוֹדְךָ כִּי עֲנִיתָנִי וַתְּהִי לִי לִישׁוּעָה

I thank You for You have answered me, and have become my salvation.

Even ma-asu haboneem, hay'tah l'rosh pinah. ... אֶבֶן מָאֲסוּ הַבּוֹנִים הָיְתָה לְרֹאשׁ פִּנָּה

The stone which the builders rejected has become the major cornerstone.

Mei-eit Adonai hay'tah zot, hi niflat b'eineinu..... מֵאֵת יי הָיְתָה זֹּאת הִיא נִפְלָאֹת בְּעֵינֵינוּ.

This the Lord's doing; it is marvelous in our sight.

Zeh hayom asah Adonai, nagilah v’nism’chah vo.... זה היום עשה יי נגילה ונשמחה בו

This is the day, which the Lord has made – let us be glad and rejoice on it.

Ana Adonai hoshi-ah na.. ....... אָנָא יי, הוֹשִיעָה נָּא.

O Lord, deliver us!

Ana Adonai hatzlichah na.. ...... אָנָא יי, הַצְלִיחָה נָא.

O Lord, let us prosper!

.

Whoever can read the Hebrew reads the first half of the line, and everyone else replies with the chorus: "Ki l'olam chasdo!" (for his loving-kindness is forever).

הוֹדוּ לַיי כִּי טוֹב, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

הוֹדוּ לֵאלֹהֵי הָאֱלֹהִים, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

הוֹדוּ לָאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לעֹשֵׂה נִפְלָאוֹת גְדֹלוֹת לְבַדּוֹ, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לעֹשֵׂה הַשָּׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לְרוֹקַע הָאָרֶץ עַל הַמָּיְם, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לְעֹשֵׂה אוֹרִים גְּדֹלִים, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת בַּיוֹם, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

אֶת הַיָּרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְמֶמְשְׁלוֹת בַּלַּיְלָה, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לְמַכֵּה מִצְרַים בִּבְכוֹרֵיהֶם, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

וַיוֹצֵא יִשְׂרָאֵל מִתּוֹכָם, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לְגֹזֵר יַם סוּף לִגְזָרִים, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

וְהֶעֱבִיר יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּתוֹכוֹ, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

וְנִעֵר פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ בְיַם סוּף, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לְמוֹלִיךְ עַמּוֹ בַמִּדְבָּר, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לְמַכֵּה מְלָכִים גְּדֹלִים, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

וַיָהֲרֹג מְלָכִים אַדִירִים, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

לְסִיחוֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

וּלְעוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

וָנָתַן אַרְצָם לְנַחֲלָה, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

נַחֲלָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עָבְדוּ, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

שֶׁבְִּשִׁפְלֵנוּ זָכַר לָנוּ, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

וַיִפְרְקֵנוּ מִצָּרֵינוּ, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

נֹתֵן לֶחֶם לְכָל בָּשָׂר, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

הוֹדוּ לְאֵל הַשָּׁמַיִם, כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ.

Hallel

Fourth Glass of Wine As we come to the end of the seder, we drink one more glass of wine. With this final cup, we think of the strength of this community. The strength we find in believing in the power of people, the power of love, the power of something greater than ourselves, and the power of working to make the world a better place.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ, אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם, בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן:

Baruch Atah Adonai, Eloheinu Melech ha-olam, borei p’ree hagafen.

We praise God, Ruler of Everything, who creates the fruit of the vine. Drink the fourth and final glass of wine!

Nirtzah

Nirtzah

נרצה

After all the singing is concluded we recite together and then the Seder is concluded   .

חֲסַל סִדּוּר פֶּסַח כְּהִלְכָתוֹ, כְּכָל מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וְחֻקָתוֹ. כַּאֲשֶׁר זָכִינוּ לְסַדֵּר אוֹתוֹ. כֵּן נִזְכֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ. זָךְ שׁוֹכֵן מְעוֹנָה, קוֹמֵם קְהַל עֲדַת מִי מָנָה. בְּקָרוֹב נַהֵל נִטְעֵי כַנָּה. פְּדוּיִם לְצִיוֹן בְּרִנָּה.

Chasal sidur pesach k'hilchato, k'chol mishpato v'chukato. Ka-asher zachinu l'sadeir oto, kein nizkeh la-asoto. Zach shochein m'onah, komeim k'hal adat mi manah. B'karov naheil nitei chanah, p'duyim l'tzion b'rinah.

The Passover Seder is concluded, according to each traditional detail with all its laws and customs. As we have been privileged to celebrate this Seder, so may we one day celebrate it in Jerusalem. Pure One who dwells in the high places, support your People countless in number. May you soon redeem all your People joyfully in Zion.

לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה בִּירוּשַָׁלָיִם.

L'shana Haba'ah b'Y’rushalayim

Next Year in Jerusalem!

Nirtzah
by Jenny
Source : Schlock Rock
Who Knows One?

1.  Who knows one?  I know one!

One is Hashem, one is Hashem, one is Hashem!

In the Heaven and the Earth

אחד אלוהינו שבשמיים ובארץ

2.  Who knows two?  I know two!

Two are the tablets that Moses brought, 

and one is Hashem, etc...

שני לוחות הברית

3.  Who knows three?  I know three!

Three are the fathers,

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem, etc.

שלושה אבות

4.  Who knows four?  I know four!

Four are the Mothers, 

and three are the fathers,

and two are the tablets that Moses brought, 

and one is Hashem.....

ארבע אימהות

5.  Who knows five?  I know five!

Five are the books of the *clap* Torah, 

Four are the mothers, and three are the fathers

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem...

חמישה חומשי תורה

6.  Who knows six?  I know six!

Six are the books of the *clap* Mishnah,

and five are the books of the *clap* Torah,

and four are the mothers and three are the fathers

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem...

שישה סידרי משנה

7.  Who knows seven?  I know seven!

Seven are the days of the week *clap, clap*,

Six are the books of the *clap* Mishnah,

and five are the books of the *clap* Torah,

and four are the mothers and three are the fathers

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem...

שיבעה ימי שבתא

8.  Who knows eight?  I know eight!

Eight are the days til the Brit Milah

Seven are the days of the week *clap, clap*,

Six are the books of the *clap* Mishnah,

and five are the books of the *clap* Torah,

and four are the mothers and three are the fathers

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem...

שמונה ימי מילה

9.  Who knows nine?  I know nine!

Nine are the months til the baby's born

Eight are the days til the Brit Milah

Seven are the days of the week *clap, clap*,

Six are the books of the *clap* Mishnah,

and five are the books of the *clap* Torah,

and four are the mothers and three are the fathers

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem...

תישעה ירחי לידה

10.  Who know ten?  I know ten!

Ten are the Ten Commandments

Nine are the months til the baby's born

Eight are the days til the Brit Milah

Seven are the days of the week *clap, clap*,

Six are the books of the *clap* Mishnah,

and five are the books of the *clap* Torah,

and four are the mothers and three are the fathers

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem...

עשרה דיבריא

11.  Who knows eleven?  I know eleven!

Eleven are the stars in Joseph's dream

Ten are the Ten Commandments

Nine are the months til the baby's born

Eight are the days til the Brit Milah

Seven are the days of the week *clap, clap*,

Six are the books of the *clap* Mishnah,

and five are the books of the *clap* Torah,

and four are the mothers and three are the fathers

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem...

אחד עשר כוכביא

.יא

12.  Who knows twelve?  I know twelve!

Twelve are the tribes of Israel

Eleven are the stars in Joseph's dream

Ten are the Ten Commandments

Nine are the months til the baby's born

Eight are the days til the Brit Milah

Seven are the days of the week *clap, clap*,

Six are the books of the *clap* Mishnah,

and five are the books of the *clap* Torah,

and four are the mothers and three are the fathers

and two are the tablets that Moses brought,

and one is Hashem...

שנים עשר שיבטיא

.יב

Nirtzah

?אֶחָד מִי יוֹדֵעַ

.אֶחָד מִי יוֹדֵעַ? אֶחָד אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
.שְׁנַיִם מִי יוֹדֵעַ? שְׁנַיִם אֲנִי יוֹדֵע: שְׁנֵי לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית. אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
.שְׁלֹשָה מִי יוֹדֵעַ? שְׁלֹשָה אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית. אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
.אַרְבַּע מִי יוֹדֵעַ? אַרְבַּע אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: אַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית. אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
.חֲמִשָּׁה מִי יוֹדֵעַ? חֲמִשָּׁה אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית. אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
שִׁשָּׁה מִי יוֹדֵעַ? שִׁשָּׁה אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית. אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
שִׁבְעָה מִי יוֹדֵעַ? שִׁבְעָה אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי שַׁבַּתָּא, שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
שְׁמוֹנָה מִי יוֹדֵעַ? שְׁמוֹנָה אֲנִי יוֹדֵע: שְׁמוֹנָה יְמֵי מִילָה, שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי שַׁבַּתָּא, שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית, אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
תִּשְׁעָה מִי יוֹדֵעַ? תִּשְׁעָה אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: תִּשְׁעָה יַרְחֵי לֵדָה, שְׁמוֹנָה יְמֵי מִילָה, שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי שַׁבַּתָּא, שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית, אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
עֲשָׂרָה מִי יוֹדֵעַ? עֲשָׂרָה אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: עֲשָׂרָה דִבְּרַיָא, תִּשְׁעָה יַרְחֵי לֵדָה, שְׁמוֹנָה יְמֵי מִילָה, שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי שַׁבַּתָּא, שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּעאִ מָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית, אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
אַחַד עָשָׂר מִי יוֹדֵעַ? אַחַד עָשָׂר אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: אַחַד עָשָׂר כּוֹכְבַיָּא, עֲשָׂרָה דִבְּרַיָא, תִּשְׁעָה יַרְחֵי לֵדָה, שְׁמוֹנָה יְמֵי מִילָה, שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי שַׁבַּתָּא, שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּעאִ מָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית, אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מִי יוֹדֵעַ? שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטַיָּא, אַחַד עָשָׂר כּוֹכְבַיָּא, עֲשָׂרָה דִבְּרַיָא, תִּשְׁעָה יַרְחֵי לֵדָה, שְׁמוֹנָה יְמֵי מִילָה, שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי שַׁבַּתָּא, שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּעאִ מָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית, אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ
שְׁלֹשָה עָשָׂר מִי יוֹדֵעַ? שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ: שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר מִדַּיָּא, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטַיָּא, אַחַד עָשָׂר כּוֹכְבַיָּא, עֲשָׂרָה דִבְּרַיָא, תִּשְׁעָה יַרְחֵי לֵדָה, שְׁמוֹנָה יְמֵי מִילָה, שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי שַׁבַּתָּא, שִׁשָּׁה סִדְרֵי מִשְׁנָה, חֲמִשָּׁה חוּמְשֵׁי תוֹרָה, אַרְבַּעאִ מָּהוֹת, שְׁלֹשָׁה אָהַבוֹת, שְׁנַיִ לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית, אֶחָד אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ

Transliteration

Echad mi yodea? Echad ani yodea. Echad Eloheinu, Eloheinu, Eloheinu, Eloheinu, Shebashamayim uva'aretz
Shnayim mi yodea? Shnayim ani yodea. Shnei luchot habrit,
Shlosha mi yodea? Shlosha ani yodea. Shlosha avot,
Arbah mi yodea ? Arbah ani yodea. Arbah imahot,
Chamisha mi yodea? Chamisha ani yodea. Chamisha chumshei Torah,
Shisha mi yodea? Shisha ani yodea. Shisha sidrei mishnah,
Shivah mi yodea? Shivah ani yodea Shivah y'mei shabta
Shmonah mi yodea? Shmonah ani yodea Shmonah y'mei milah
Tishah mi yodea? Tishah ani yodea Tishah yarchei leidah
Asarah mi yodea? Asarah ani yodea Asarah dibrayah
Achad asar mi yodea? Achad asar ani yodea Achad asar kochvayah
Shneim asar mi yodea? Shneim asar ani yodea Shneim asar shivtayah,
Shlosha asar mi yodea? Shloshah asar ani yodea Shlosha asar midayah,

English

Who knows one? I know one. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows two? I know two. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows three? I know three. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows four? I know four. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows five? I know five. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows six? I know six. Six are the orders of the Mishnah. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows seven? I know seven. Seven are the days of the week. Six are the orders of the Mishnah. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth

Who knows eight? I know eight. Eight are the days for circumcision. Seven are the days of the week. Six are the orders of the Mishnah. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows nine? I know nine. Eight are the days for circumcision. Seven are the days of the week. Six are the orders of the Mishnah. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows ten? I know ten. Ten are the Words from Sinai. Nine are the months of childbirth. Eight are the days for circumcision. Seven are the days of the week. Six are the orders of the Mishnah. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows eleven? I know eleven. Eleven are the stars [in Joseph's Dream]. Ten are the Words from Sinai. Nine are the months of childbirth. Eight are the days for circumcision. Seven are the days of the week. Six are the orders of the Mishnah. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows twelve? I know twelve. Twelve are the tribes. Eleven are the stars [in Joseph's Dream]. Ten are the Words from Sinai. Nine are the months of childbirth. Eight are the days for circumcision. Seven are the days of the week. Six are the orders of the Mishnah. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Who knows thirteen? I know thirteen. Thirteen are the attributes of God. Twelve are the tribes. Eleven are the stars. Ten are the Words from Sinai. Nine are the months of childbirth. Eight are the days for circumcision. Seven are the days of the week. Six are the orders of the Mishnah. Five are the books of the Torah. Four are the matriarchs. Three are the patriarchs. Two are the tablets of the covenant. One is our God in Heaven and Earth.

Nirtzah

(Chad Gadya) חַד גַדְיָא

חַד גַּדְיָאחַד גַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא שׁוּנְרָא, וְאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא כַלְבָּא ,וְנָשַׁךְ לְשׁוּנְרָא, דְּאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא חוּטְרָא, וְהִכָּה לְכַלְבָּא

דְּנָשַׁךְ לְשׁוּנְרָא, דְּאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא נוּרָא, וְשָׂרַף לְחוּטְרָא

דְּהִכָּה לְכַלְבָּא ,דְּנָשַׁךְ לְשׁוּנְרָא, דְּאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא מַיָּא, וְכָבָה לְנוּרָא

דְּשָׂרַף לְחוּטְרָא ,דְּהִכָּה לְכַלְבָּא

דְּנָשַׁךְ לְשׁוּנְרָא, דְּאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא תוֹרָא, וְשָׁתָה לְמַיָּא

דְּכָבָה לְנוּרָא ,דְּשָׂרַף לְחוּטְרָא

דהִכָּה לְכַלְבָּא, דְּנָשַׁךְ לְשׁוּנְרָא, דְּאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא הַשּׁוֹחֵט, וְשָׁחַט לְתוֹרָא

דְּשָׁתָה לְמַיָּא ,דְּכָבָה לְנוּרָא

דְּשָׂרַף לְחוּטְרָא, דְּהִכָּה לְכַלְבָּא

דְּנָשַׁךְ לְשׁוּנְרָא, דְּאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא מַלְאַךְ הַמָּוֶת, וְשָׁחַט לְשׁוֹחֵט

דְּשָׁחַט לְתוֹרָא,דְּשָׁתָה לְמַיָּא

דְּכָבָה לְנוּרָא, דְּשָׂרַף לְחוּטְרָא

דְּהִכָּה לְכַלְבָּא, דְּנָשַׁךְ לְשׁוּנְרָא, דְּאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא

וְאָתָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא

וְשָׁחַט לְמַלְאַךְ הַמָּוֶת ,דְּשָׁחַט לְשׁוֹחֵט

דְּשָׁחַט לְתוֹרָא, דְּשָׁתָה לְמַיָּא

דְּכָבָה לְנוּרָא, דְּשָׂרַף לְחוּטְרָא

דְּהִכָּה לְכַלְבָּא ,דְּנָשַׁךְ לְשׁוּנְרָא, דְּאָכְלָה לְגַּדְיָא

דְּזַבִּין אַבָּא בִּתְרֵי זוּזֵי

חַד גַּדְיָא, חַד גַּדְיָא,

Transliteration

Chad gadya, chad gadya.

D’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata shunra v’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata chalba v’nashach l’shunrah,

d’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata chutra v’hika l’chalba,

d’nashach l’shunrah,

d’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata nura v’saraf l’chutra,

d’hikah l’chalba,

d’nashach l’shunrah,

d’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata maya v’chava l’nura,

d’saraf l’chutra,

d’hikah l’chalba,

d’nashach l’shunrah,

d’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata tora v’shatah l’maya,

d’chava l’nura,

d’saraf l’chutra,

d’hikah l’chalba,

d’nashach l’shunrah,

d’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata hashocheit v’shachat l’tora,

d’shata l’maya,

d’chava l’nura,

d’saraf l’chutra,

d’hikah l’chalba,

d’nashach l’shunrah,

d’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata malach hamavet v’shachat l’shocheit,

d’shachat l’tora,

d’shata l’maya,

d’chava l’nura,

d’saraf l’chutra,

d’hikah l’chalba,

d’nashach l’shunrah,

d’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

V’ata Hakodesh Baruch Hu v’shachat l’malach hamavet,

d’shachat l’shocheit,

d’shachat l’tora,

d’shata l’maya,

d’chava l’nura,

d’saraf l’chutra,

d’hikah l’chalba,

d’nashach l’shunrah,

d’achlah l’gadya,

d’zabin aba bitrei zuzei,

chad gadya, chad gadya.

English

One little goat

One little goat, one little goat

Which my father bought for two zuzim*

One little goat, one little goat

The cat came, and ate the goat

Which my father bought for two zuzim

One little goat, one little goat

The dog came, and bit the cat, that ate the goat,

Which my father bought for two zuzim

One little goat, one little goat

The mother with stick came, and beat the dog

that bit the cat, that ate the goat,

Which my father bought for two zuzim

One little goat, one little goat

The fire came, and burned the stick

that beat the dog, that bit the cat, that ate the goat,

Which my father bought for two zuzim.

One little goat, one little goat

The water came, and extinguished the fire,

that burned the stick, that beat the dog

that bit the cat, that ate the goat

Which my father bought for two zuzim

One little goat, one little goat

The ox came, and drank the water,

that extinguished the fire, that burned the stick,

that beat the dog, that bit the cat, that ate the goat,

Which my father bought for two zuzim.

One little goat, one little goat

The slaughterer (Shohet) came, and killed the ox,

that drank the water, that extinguished the fire

that burned the stick, that beat the dog,

that bit the cat, that ate the goat,

Which my father bought for two zuzim

One little goat, one little goat

The angel of death came, and slew the slaughterer,

who killed the ox, that drank the water

that extinguished the fire, that burned the stick

that beat the dog, that bit the cat, that ate the goat,

Which my father bought for two zuzim

One little goat, one little goat

Then came the Holy One, Blessed be He

and smote the angel of death, who slew the slaughterer

who killed the ox, that drank the water

that extinguished the fire, that burned the stick

that beat the dog, that bit the cat, that ate the goat,

Which my father bought for two zuzim

One little goat, one little goat

Nirtzah
Source : Mike Feuer in http://elmad.pardes.org/2016/04/the-pardes-companion-to-the-haggadah/
All night long we have been reliving the story of the Exodus, striving to awaken our present consciousness to redemption. Moments ago the wave of the past finally broke over us, sweeping away the boundary between then and now as we burst into the praises of Hallel. Redemption was transformed from a story about our ancestors into the here and now and given life through our song. But in the midst of our excitement, a question arises. The past is gone forever, and as deep as our present joy may be, it is fleeting. Where is this feeling of freedom taking us?

Now is the time to know that our service tonight has found favor in the eyes of the Redeemer. Nirtzah is not a prayer which attempts to fix what was, or even a joyful offering to God of what has just come to be. Nirtzah is an assertion of hope. It is the confidence that the true fruit of our service tonight will be a redeemed future. The power of Nirtzah lies in our knowledge that we have succeeded in telling a story of our past which now infuses our present with joy. And that our rejoicing in freedom has planted within us the seeds of our future. May our present joy become the fertile ground out of which a truly redeemed future will grow − l’shana haba’ah b’Yerushalayim habenuyah! Next year in the Jerusalem of which we dream!

Commentary / Readings

Afikomen - From a Greek word meaning “dessert.” A piece of matzah that is hidden during the course of the seder, found after dinner, and eaten as dessert at the end of the seder meal.

Arba Kosot - Hebrew for “four cups.” In this case, it refers to the four cups of wine drunk at the Passover seder.

Barekh - The 12th step of the Passover seder, in which birkat hamazon, the grace after meals is said.

Beitzah - Hebrew for “egg.” A roasted or hard-boiled egg is placed on the seder plate to symbolize rebirth.

Bedikat Chametz - The bedikat chametz signifies finding any leavened grain products in the house on the night before the Passover Seder. This is known as 'Jewish Spring Cleaning' that is undertaken by all Jews.

Chad Gadya - Hebrew for “one goat,” this is the last of the songs sung at the conclusion of the seder and tells the story of the little goat a father bought for a pittance.

Chag Ha Aviv - Hebrew for “The Spring Holiday.” One of the alternate names for Passover.

Chazeret - The Seder plate also contains a bitter vegetable such as lettuce or celery, known as chazeret. The chazeret is included as a reminder of the Israeli slaves that experienced bitter lives.

Dayenu - Hebrew for “enough for us,” this is the name of a song sung at the Passover seder that tells of all the miracles God performed for the Israelites.

Elijah - Elijah was a Biblical prophet who lived during the times of King Ahab and Queen Jezebel. He challenged the might of the wicked king and his prophets. The Jews believe that Elijah did not die; rather he ascended to the heaven in a flaming chariot. On the occasion of Passover, a special cup of wine is filled and drunk to honor Eliyahu Ha-Navi or "Elijah the Prophet".

Exodus - Exodus refers to leaving of a great number of people. In Passover, the term exodus is used for referring the escape of the Jewish people from the slavery of the cruel Egyptians.

Gebrochts - Yiddish for “broken,” this refers to matzah that has absorbed liquid. It is customary among some Orthodox Ashkenazi Jews to avoid gebrochts as an extra stringency on Passover.

Haggadah - Hebrew for “telling” or “recounting.” A Haggadah is a book that is used to tell the story of the Exodus at the seder. There are many versions available ranging from very traditional to nontraditional, and you can also make your own.

Hallel - The 13th step of the Passover seder, in which psalms of praise are sung.

Hametz - Bread or any food that has been leavened or contains a leavening agent, hametz is prohibited on Passover.

Haroset - A sweet mixture of nuts, wine, and apples on the seder plate that symbolizes the mortar used by slaves in Egypt.

Hol HaMoed - The intermediate days of the holiday, between the first two days of holiday, and the last two days of holiday.

Kaddesh - The first step of the Passover seder, in which a blessing over a glass is recited.

Karpas - The third step of the Passover seder, in which a piece of greenery such as parsley is dipped into salt water and then eaten.

Kitniyot - Hebrew for legumes, the term here also includes corn and rice. These items were prohibited for use on Passover by some Ashkenazic rabbis in the medieval period, but many Sephardic Jews (and increasingly Conservative Jews) do allow them on Passover.

Korekh - The ninth step in the Passover seder, in which bitter herbs are eaten together with a piece of matzah.

Maggid - The fifth and most substantial step of the Passover seder, in which the story of the Exodus is recounted.

Maror - Bitter herbs. The eighth step in the Passover seder, in which the herbs (usually horseradish), symbolizing the bitterness of life under Egyptian rule, are eaten.

Matzah - Unleavened bread. According to the Bible the Israelites ate matzah right before they left Egypt. Today matzah is eaten during Passover to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt.

Motzi Matzah - The seventh step in the Passover seder, in which a piece of matzah is eaten.

Nirtzah - The 14th and final step of the Passover seder, in which the night is concluded by saying “Next year in Jerusalem.”

Pesach - Hebrew for “pass over.” Cooked meat that, according to the Bible, was eaten by the Israelites just before they left Egypt.

Rahtza - The sixth step of the Passover seder, in which the hands are washed for a second time, and a blessing is recited.

Seder - Hebrew for “order.” The Passover ritual where family and friends gather on the first one or two nights of Passover to retell the story of the Exodus. The story is told in a particular order, with specific rituals.

Shir Hashirim - The Song of Songs, the text read in synagogue during the Shabbat of Passover.

Shulhan Orekh - The 10th step in the Passover seder, in which the meal is served. Pass the matzah balls!

Tzafun - The 11th step of the Passover seder, in which the afikoman is found and eaten as dessert.

Urchatz - The second step of the Passover seder, in which the hands are washed but no blessing is recited.

Yahatz - The fourth step of the Passover seder in which a piece of matzah is broken in half.

Zeroa - Shank bone. The bone is placed on the seder plate and recalls the blood on the doorposts and the terror and the anticipation of the night of the plague of the first born.

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*